Freedom.co.za: Robben Island. 'This is a home page designed to offer all internet users information about Robben Island and Apartheid. It is developed by Freedom with acknowledgements to various information sources. Please support the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund ... '
With lots of information on the history and people of South Africa, as well as the history of apartheid , Robben Island prison and the fauna of Robben Island.
' South Africa is a big country, occupying over a million square kilometres of the Southern continent, its 3 000 -km coastline lapped by the cold waters of the Atlantic in the West and, in the east, by the warm waters of the Indian Ocean. More than that it is a country of remarkable diversity with its population - ' The Rainbow Nation '- embracing a bewildering mix of clours, creeds, customs and languages. Variety and contrast are visible in the nation and in the land itself, and in the character of the towns and cities and rural areas ... '
Reconciliation Australia 'is the body established to provide a continuing national focus for reconciliation following the end of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in December 2000.'
'This site contains all the documents and history of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation for the ten-year period of their existence to December 2000.'
Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation.
Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama. 'I am just a simple Buddhist monk - no more, nor less.'
Dalai Lama: Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech, Oslo, 1989. 'No matter what part of the world we come from, we are all basically the same human beings. We all seek happiness and try to avoid suffering. We have basically the same human needs and concerns. All of us human beings want freedom and the right to determine our own destiny as individuals and as peoples. That is human nature. The great changes that are taking place in the world, from Eastern Europe to Africa, are a clear indication of this ... '
Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-45.
'Between 1933 and 1945, Germany's National Socialist (Nazi) government under Adolf Hitler used its monopoly of authority to attempt to rid German territory of people who did not fit its vision of a "master Aryan race." Foremost among the so- called racial enemies, according to the Nazis' antisemitic ideology, were the Jews. When Germany's pursuit of "living space" led to World War II and the conquest of much of Europe, the Nazis undertook the systematic murder of every Jew in Europe.'
'Many other groups were targets of persecution and even murder under the Nazis' ideology, including Germans with mental and physical disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Roma ("Gypsies"), Poles, and Soviet prisoners of war. Millions perished in this state-sponsored tyranny.'
'The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is dedicated to preserving the memory of all who suffered during this unprecedented tragedy. This online exhibition examines the campaign of persecution and violence against the homosexuals of Germany.'
Rainbow Warrior Bombing - 1985. Auckland City Police site.
'On 7 July 1985 the Rainbow Warrior, flagship of the Greenpeace Organisation, an international body concerned with conservation and environmental issues, arrived in Auckland and tied up at Marsden Wharf.'
'On the night of 10 July 1985 disaster struck. Shortly before midnight two high explosive devices, attached to the hull of the Rainbow Warrior some time previously, detonated within the space of a few minutes. The force of the explosions was such that a hole eight feet in size was opened below the waterline at the engine room. The vessel sank within minutes ... '
'In the weeks leading up to the depositions hearing, media interest was fanned by conflicting statements from the French Government ... The French Press was not satisfied and a number of prominent French papers continued to pressure the Government for the truth. Their persistent enquiries led to the inescapable conclusion that their own Government was responsible. Following a further round of official denials, Monsieur Hernu, the Defence Minister resigned and on 22 September Prime Minister Laurent Fabius admitted, in the face of indisputable evidence, that the French Secret Service had ordered the attack on the Rainbow Warrior ... '
You Can't Sink a Rainbow. Greenpeace site.
A short history of the Rainbow Warrior, 1977-89.
The Rainbow Warrior crew - where are they now?
Celestia 'is a free real-time space simulation that lets you experience our universe in three dimensions. Unlike most planetarium software, Celestia doesn't confine you to the surface of the Earth. You can travel throughout the solar system, to any of over 100,000 stars, or even beyond the galaxy. All travel in Celestia is seamless; the exponential zoom feature lets you explore space across a huge range of scales, from galaxy clusters down to spacecraft only a few meters across ... '
To the General Assembly of the United Nations by Albert Einstein.
'We are caught in a situation in which every citizen of every country, his children, and his life s work, are threatened by the terrible insecurity which reigns in our world today. The progress of technological development has not increased the stability and the welfare of humanity. Because of our inability to solve the problem of international organization, it has actually contributed to the dangers which threaten peace and the very existence of mankind ... '
'The United Nations cannot be blamed for these failures. No international organization can be stronger than the constitutional powers given it, or than its component parts want it to be. As a matter of fact, the United Nations is an extremely important and useful institution provided the peoples and Governments of the world realize that it is merely a transitional system toward the final goal, which is the establishment of a supranational authority vested with sufficient legislative and executive powers to keep the peace. The present impact lies in the fact that there is no sufficient, reliable supra-national authority. Thus the responsible leaders of all Governments are obliged to act on the assumption of eventual war. Every step motivated by that assumption contributes to the general fear and distrust and hastens the final catastrophe. However, strong national armaments may be they do not create military security for any nation nor do they guarantee the maintenance of peace ... '
EyeWitness Photo of the Week. 'History through the eyes of those who lived it.'
Private Shook Attempts to Move a Mule Team, 1918.
Promised Land, 1912. Immigrants at Ellis Island.
Benefit Cheques, 1934. Farmers receiving benefit cheques during the Great Depression.
Air Mail Mechanics, 1924.
Women of Our Time. Twentieth century photographs from the National Portrait Gallery, Washington.
Frank Worth Celebrity Photographs.
Geographical Directory of World Paper Money.
Alice in Wonderland. The whimsical creations of Lewis Carroll.
Civil War Photography.
Galleria Carnivora, 'a museum dedicated to the fine art of carnivorous plant photography. '
All via Speckled Paint.
Literary Map of New York City.
Women's Magazines of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.
India, The Living Arts. Superb.
The African Presence in the Americas 1492-1992.
'Before Columbus, before the "Americas," indigenous peoples organized in communities, nations and empires had resided in this hemisphere for over 40,000 years. According to recent scholarship, visitors from Africa, Asia and Europe arrived on these shores long before 1492. It was the Columbus voyage of 1492, however, that ushered in the era of European conquest, colonization and settlement in this hemisphere which led to the formation of the 49 nations that comprise North, South and Central America and the Caribbean.'
'The African presence in the Americas is a direct consequences of the European - Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, French and English - colonization of the "New World." Over the first 350 years of European occupation, more than 10 million Africans of many different ethnic groups were sold into slavery and distributed throughout the Americas. Today, modest estimates place their descendants at over 200 million. Over the past 500 years, Africans and their descendants have been involved at one level or another in virtually every aspect of the development of this hemisphere, providing the foundation on which today's Americas were built ... '
New York Times Obituary: The Great Showman Dead. Phineas T. Barnum, April 8 1891.
New York Times: Pablo Picasso is Dead at 91. New York Times, April 9 1973 edition; with a front page for the day.
God Save the Queen. Punk rock album cover art, with an article.
More punk rock album covers.
Punk rock portraits.
Via Art for a Change.
Boat People No Longer: Vietnamese Canadians.
A History of the Native People of Canada. Huge and important.
Kichi Sibi: Tracing Our Region's Ancient History.
'Today, the Ottawa Valley is the home of a nation's capital and an active participant in the high-tech sector of the twenty-first century. In the nineteenth century, it was at the heart of the Canadian logging industry. Before that, the Ottawa River was a major travel route for explorers and fur traders. However, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the region had witnessed thousands of years of Native history. '
'Kichi Sibi, which means great river in the Algonquin language, provides an overview of the ancient history of the Ottawa Valley using artifacts found in the region. Picnickers, hikers, farmers and avocational archaeologists found these objects over the past 150 years and donated them to museums. Their generosity, hard work and interest in preserving the past have given us a greater awareness of the Valley's ancient history ... '
Project Maje: Human Rights in Burma.
Ashes and Tears: Interviews with refugees from Burma.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. 'With 12 topical essays, 250 images, 350 text documents, 13 songs, 13 maps, a timeline, and a glossary.'
The Abandoned Underground Metro Stations of Paris.
Vermont Life. The Green Mountain state in spring.
A Pastoral Preserve Faces the Future. (Smithsonian Mag, 1998)
'At Vermont's Shelburne Farms, a 19th-century showplace fulfills a quest to teach love for the land.'
Happy Birthday. A Mirror Project theme.
Pride & Prejudice in hypertext.
The Map Room. A weblog about maps.
Molecules of the Month.
Our Earth as Art. Via MeFi.
J.S. Wooley. 'Late in January of 1896, Jesse Sumner Wooley, a well-known photographer from Ballston Spa, New York, took passage to Florida on the S.S. Algonquin. Accompanied by his friends the Reverend G. G. Johnson and A. N. Wiley, the trio travelled to Florida to attend the dedication of a Baptist church in St. Augustine. Equipped with a hand-held Eastman Kodak Bulls-Eye camera, Wooley used his trip to St. Augustine to create a stereopticon or lantern-slide lecture about Florida. Wooley subsequently returned to Florida in the 1920s and 1930s. The photographs and text which make up this web site are the result of both his trips in 1896 and three decades later. '
Beware the colossal squid.
More on this mighty mollusc.
The Poetry of D.H. Rumsfeld.
'As we know,
There are known knowns.
There are things we know we know.
We also know
There are known unknowns.
That is to say
We know there are some things
We do not know.
But there are also unknown unknowns,
The ones we don't know
We don't know.
The Second Superpower.
'There is an emerging second superpower, but it is not a nation. Instead, it is a new form of international player, constituted by the will of the people in a global social movement. The beautiful but deeply agitated face of this second superpower is the worldwide peace campaign, but the body of the movement is made up of millions of people concerned with a broad agenda that includes social development, environmentalism, health, and human rights. This movement has a surprisingly agile and muscular body of citizen activists who identify their interests with world society as a wholeand who recognize that at a fundamental level we are all one. These are people who are attempting to take i nto account the needs and dreams of all 6.3 billion people in the worldand not just the members of one or another nation. Consider the members of Amnesty International who write letters on behalf of prisoners of conscience, and the millions of Americans who are participating in email actions against the war in Iraq. Or the physicians who contribute their time to Doctors Without Borders/ Medecins Sans Frontieres. '
Tuktu and Nogak Project. 'The Tuktu and Nogak Project is a community driven effort to collect and share Inuit Quajimatajatuqangit or traditional ecological knowledge of caribou and calving areas in the Bathurst Inlet area of the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut, Canada. '
'Ecological knowledge held by Inuit elders, hunters and other community members is shared through stories that are the fabric of Inuit culture, tradition and subsistence. Within these stories are key observations that can guide community members as well as decision makers. For example, hunters and elders know where the richest hunting grounds are or how to tell when the weather is going to change. These survival tips are based on repeated observations and have been passed down from one generation to the next. The Tuktu and Nogak Project recognizes the value of Inuit contributions to better understanding caribou and celebrates the richness of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit. Through the Tuktu and Nogak Project, it is hoped that Inuit Quajimajatuqangit will be easily available to current and future generations ... '
North, Central and South American Documents from the Centre for World Indigenous Studies. Includes many treaty texts.
Trail of Broken Treaties: For Renewal of Contracts -- Reconstruction of Indian Communities and Securing an Indian Future in America.
A Mayan Struggle.
History of the geisha world.
'Geisha come out of the "floating world" the era of the pleasure quarters, giving rise to today's "flower and willow world" the world of the Geisha. '
'The origin of the pleasure quarters is attributed to Saburoemon who asked for, and was granted, license to build a brothel by his ruling warlord. This was placed not far from the Imperial Palace in Kyoto and was called the Yanagimachi or Willow Town ... '
Geisha and Maiko of Japan. Photographs.
Baden-Powell Photo Galley: Matabele Warriors, 1939.
Chief Dinizulu of the Usutu.
Portraid of Dinizulu, 1888.
Brief History of Traditional African Beadcraft. 'It is generally assumed that African beadwork in regions south of the Sahara has its origins in the comparatively recent past when the colonisation of Africa opened up the Dark Continent to traders from Portugal, the Netherlands and England. Further south, in what is now KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Province of South Africa, the trade in beads is supposed to have had an even more recent origin. Henry Francis Fynn, who came to Port Natal (now Durban) as a trader in 1824, was possibly the first Englishman to have offered glass beads as standard merchandise to the North Nguni, best known of which was the Zulu, whose colourful beadwork is unique because of it's singular eloquence in the way messages dealing with male-female relationships were traditionally woven into it's design ... '
The Zulu beadwork language.
Eloquent Elegance: Beadwork in the Zulu cultural tradition.
What's That Stuff?
Lipstick. 'I have some early memories of imitating my mother applying makeup. I would sit in front of the mirror and powder my face with loose powder using a big hamburger-like powder puff, smear my mother's ruby-red lipstick on my lips, and pucker up like the movie and television stars I'd seen. I also recall the days when I was about 11 or 12 and my friends and I--not having arrived at the age where we were allowed to wear lipstick--would sneak a tube of lipstick to school, put it on, and then wipe it off before we got home. Nowadays, I know women who say they feel naked without lipstick ... '
Hair colouring. 'Ever since Madonna became a star in the mid-1980s, Ia natural brunettehad a not-so-secret desire to be a blonde. Over the years, I made and canceled a few appointments to have my hair colored. I just never had the nerve to go through with it until last summer, when my gray streak had gotten so big it was no longer a fashion statement, it waswellgray hair!'
New Scientist: Marijuana. 'Only one thing is certain about the great marijuana debate: whether you are a prohibition-mad politician, or a stoned ex-hippy who would like to dish out the drug for free, you are likely to have a lot more opinions than facts ... '
Decriminalisation yes, totally safe no.
New Scientist: Alcohol.
The Wilton Diptych, 1395-9.
The Arnolfini Portrait, van Eyck, 1422.
Venus and Mars, Botticelli, about 1485.
'Mars, god of war, was one of the lovers of Venus, goddess of love. Here Mars is asleep and unarmed, while Venus is awake and alert. The meaning of the picture is that love conquers war, or love conquers all. '
'This work was probably a piece of bedroom furniture, perhaps a bedhead or piece of wainscoting, most probably the 'spalliera' or backboard from a chest or day bed. The wasps ('vespe' in Italian) at the top right suggest a link with the Vespucci family, though they may be no more than a symbol of the stings of love ... '
Via the National Gallery, London.
Sacred & Profane.
The Web Museum of Winsham, Somerset. A most interesting place.
Holocaust Memorial Day.
The Modern Antiquarian. An amazing place. With a weblog!
The Modern Antiquarian. 'I spent the Christmas period in Cornwall; the perfect antidote to avaricious London and the zombies at the malls.'
Carmarthenshire standing stones.
Mark Twain on War and Imperialistm. 'Mark Twain (1835-1910) was the most prominent literary opponent of the Philippine-American War and he served as a vice president of the Anti-Imperialist League from 1901 until his death. In February of 1901, as his essay "To the Person Sitting in Darkness" was creating a storm of controversy throughout the United States, a Massachusetts newspaper editorialized that "Mark Twain has suddenly become the most influential anti-imperialist and the most dreaded critic of the sacrosanct person in the White House that the country contains." The materials assembled here provide samples of his scathing satirical writings on imperialism, from an early satire on the government's plan to buy the island of St. Thomas through his last writings on the Philippines, China, South Africa, and Russia, and document his ten-year involvement with the Anti-Imperialist League.'
The Lukhang: A Hidden Temple in Tibet. Thx, homunculus.
The Inuit Art Foundation 'is a non-profit organization that helps artists to help themselves. Established in 1985, the foundation is owned and controlled by Inuit artists.'
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami: Canada's National Inuit Organisation. 'Welcome to the web presence of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. We are the national Inuit organization in Canada, representing the four Inuit regions - Labrador, Nunavik (northern Quebec), Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit region in the Northwest Territories. We live in the Canadian Arctic, the largest geographic part of the country. This Internet site reflects our ancient and modern history. It allows us to communicate to the global community instantly, making the notion of a "Global Village" more real. That's vital at this stage as issues such as global warming affect the Arctic regions in a very tangible way. This affects our health, as you will learn in the "ITK Health Department" area of our site, and our environment, as is clear in that part of the site. Politically, Inuit are united, which is reflected in our name - Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami - which means "Inuit are united in Canada". I hope you enjoy your visit. '
Inupiaq - Alaska Native Cultural Profile. (Many broken links, but an interesting overview).
Vinayak Bharne & Iku Shimomura: Wood & Transience. 'We in Asia have always felt the magic of the trees. They represented natural enigmas where many things happened as part of an overall cosmic order and under which lay the source of enlightenment. After all the Buddha did not receive his wisdom within a building but under a tree directly beneath the sky ... '
Hemp in Religion. 'Hemp has an important function in the mythology of Shinto, the "Way of the Gods" , as the ancient indigenous religion of Japan is known. Hemp was used to purify, to drive out evil (exorcism). Hemp seeds were used in Shinto marriage ceremonies. In some ceremonies hemp leaves were burnt as an "invitation to the spirits". (Moore) Even today there are shinto ceremonies at major shrines such as Ise Jingu in Mie prefecture and other shrines that involve the burning of taima (marijuana) ... '
Japan's Founding Myth. 'Also known as the "Prince Yamato Myth" (Nihan Shoki / Kojiki), the founding myth of Japan involves the relation between man and the Kami or Natural Spirits/'gods'. The Kami came into existence on a plane parallel to the Prime Material, whence Japan is created after Izanagi (the male) 'dips his spear into the ocean' and creates Japan along with Izanami (the female). They produce a pantheon of gods, and it is through this natural divinity that the hegemony of the Yamato House is mythically legitimized ... '
Amaterasu: Out of the Cave and Into the Light. 'Some people say they were brother and sister, Susano-O and Amaterasu. Other people say they were meant to be husband and wife. One thing, however, was clear. They rarely agreed on even the smallest thing, and so could never tolerate the presence of the other for very long.'
'And yet, despite their many differences, there was a very close bond between them, which brought them together again and again. Here is the story of one such meeting.'
The Maasai of Tanzania. Photos.
Cats Meow 3. Internet beer recipe database.
History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, by Andrew Dickson White, written in the 19th century.
From Creation to Evolution. 'Among those masses of cathedral sculpture which preserve so much of medieval theology, one frequently recurring group is noteworthy for its presentment of a time-honoured doctrine regarding the origin of the universe.'
'The Almighty, in human form, sits benignly, making the sun, moon, and stars, and hanging them from the solid firmament which supports the "heaven above" and overarches the "earth beneath." '
'The furrows of thought on the Creators brow show that in this work he is obliged to contrive; the knotted muscles upon his arms show that he is obliged to toil; naturally, then, the sculptors and painters of the medieval and early modern period frequently represented him as the writers whose conceptions they embodied had doneas, on the seventh day, weary after thought and toil, enjoying well-earned repose and the plaudits of the hosts of heaven.'
'In these thought-fossils of the cathedrals, and in other revelations of the same idea through sculpture, painting, glass-staining, mosaic work, and engraving, during the Middle Ages and the two centuries following, culminated a belief which had been developed through thousands of years, and which has determined the worlds thought until our own time ... '
Stange Science: The Rocky Road to Modern Paleontology and Biology.
Divan Japonais, Toulouse-Lautrec, 1893.
The Gods (Te Atua), Gauguin, 1893-94. 'The imposing idols seen here reflect the figural style of Oceanic sculptures that Gauguin had seen during his travels. To create these prints, the artist first cut his composition into a block of hard wood, delineating the figures with abrupt, gouged lines. Then he selectively inked and wiped the block before printing the image on a sheet of paper. The dark and mysterious areas of the composition create an aura of the exotic and the spiritual. '
Madonna, Munch, 1895-1902. A most disturbing image.
Mystery at Number 262. (Fun and interesting, but best viewed on a fast connection).
The Making of the US Constitution. 'When Joseph Gales compiled the early debates and proceedings of Congress for publication in 1834 he chose to introduce the first volume with a brief history of the making of the Constitution followed by the text of the Constitution itself, "as originally adopted," that is, without the amendments we know as the Bill of Rights. Below is that Introduction to volume of the Annals of Congress.'
Via A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation.
Timeline: American History as Seen in Congressional Documents, 1774-1873. 'The colonies join forces in the Continental Congress, secure their independence, and agree to establish a new form of government. The Constitutional Convention draws up the blueprint for a new nation. This story of the birth of a new nation is told in the thirty-four volumes of the Journals of the Continental Congress , the essays of The Federalist Papers , and in the personal correspondence reproduced in the Letters of the Delegates to Congress. Accounts of the Constitutional Convention such as The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 and The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution relay the debates and decisions of the Founding Fathers as they construct a structure for the federal government.
Congressional Pugilists (1798).
The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States.
Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894. With maps.
Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865.
The Impeachment Trial of President Andrew Johnson.
Presidential Elections and the Electoral College: The Proceedings of the Electoral Commission of 1877.
Carpets of the Beni Hassan Village Weavers in Southern Iraq. (Interesting article - found via plep's referrer log).
Children's Books Online, 'the largest collection of illustrated antique children's books on line...we think'.
The London Tube Map Archive. Also via Coudal.