plep Archive

26th April
Child Slaves in Ghana. (AllAfrica article and photos)
'Over one thousand children are living as slaves on the banks of Ghana's Volta Lake, being used as free labour by local fishermen. '
'The victims, mostly boys aged between 5 and 14, are forced to work from dawn to dusk casting and drawing nets. They live separately in cramped thatched roofed huts, are poorly fed, suffer physical abuse and never get paid. Their diet consists mainly of cassava (manioc) with watery soup. They are never given fish. Because of their poor diet, harsh living and working conditions, many suffer from water-borne illnesses and experience stunted growth. ' 'In one location alone, an island in the middle of Lake Volta, dozens of slave children are marooned in "Accra Town", a fishing settlement with no electricity or running water. In this settlement, the International Organization of Migration has collected testimonies that at least five children have recently drowned trying to release nets snagged on the bottom of the lake ... '

Celebrating 50 Years of the Double Helix. 'On April 25th 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick described the structure of DNA in the journal Nature. '
'This momentous discovery, which was the culmination of research by Medical Research Council scientists, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin in London, and James Watson and Francis Crick in Cambridge, was one of the most significant landmarks of 20th century science. '
'To mark the 50th anniversary the Medical Research Council, the Royal Society and Nature have joined forces to coordinate a programme of events in 2003 ... '

50 Years of DNA. (Nature)
' "This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest"
In April 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick wrote these words as part of the opening paragraph of a Letter to Nature. On the 50th anniversary celebrations of the publication of the structure of DNA, Nature presents this web focus, containing news, features and web specials celebrating the historical, scientific and cultural impacts of the discovery of the double helix ... '

Death, Burial and the Afterlife in Ancient Greece. 'The ancient Greek conception of the afterlife and the ceremonies associated with burial were already well established by the sixth century B.C. In the Odyssey, Homer describes the Underworld, deep beneath the earth, where Hades, the brother of Zeus and Poseidon, and his wife, Persephone, reigned over countless drifting crowds of shadowy figuresthe "shades" of all those who had died. It was not a happy place. Indeed, the ghost of the great hero Achilles told Odysseus that he would rather be a poor serf on earth than lord of all the dead in the Underworld (Odyssey, 11.48991) ... '

The Technique of Bronze Statuary in Ancient Greece.

TeaHyakka. Encyclopaedia of the Japanese tea ceremony.

Aaron Douglas (1898-1979). Artist of the Harlem Renaissance.

Faith Ringgold (1934- ).
'Faith Ringgold, has used her art to voice her opinions on racism and gender inequality. Faith Ringgold, born in 1930 in Harlem, attended the City College of New York where she received her BS and her MA in Fine Arts. In 1967, Ringgold created a series, The American People, which focused on racial conflict and discrimination ... '
A Century of Quilts: Faith Ringgold.

Beyond the Movie: Lord of the Rings. (National Geographic) Good stuff here.
'Discover the history, myth, and cultural forces that inspired The Lord of the Rings and explore the parallels between the imaginary world of Middle-earth and our own. '

There and Back Again. The journal and exploits of the hobbits of the Shire. Requires Flash.

Nihonto - Japanese Swords.

The Art of DNA. 'Fifty years after its discovery, the double helix is twisting itself ever deeper into popular culture.'

A Weekend on Mull. Via the Modern Antiquarian.

Brixton, South London. Via Urban75.

Chicago in Winter. 'Photographs taken during a winter's week in Chicago, Illinois, including photos of frozen rivers, snow, stations and architecture. '

Moi - The End of an Era. Gallery.
'At the tail end of December 2002, Kenya's President Daniel Toroitich arap Moi, 78, came to the end of almost a quarter-century in power, bowing out of office and State House in the capital, Nairobi, having seen his party and chosen successor lose the country's third multiparty elections on December 27. '
'For twenty-four years as one of Africa's longest serving leaders, Moi kept an iron grip on Kenya. After a period as vice-president, he was sworn in as the new president in October 1978, following the death in August that year of the country's independence campaigner and founder president, Mzee Jomo Kenyatta ... '

Discourses of the Ancient Nuns. 'The growing interest in women's spirituality has led to a renewed focus upon the Therigatha, the Verses of the Elder Nuns, as the oldest existing testament to the feminine experience of Buddhism ... The Bhikkhuni-samyutta is a compilation of ten short suttas in mixed prose and verse, with a total of thirty-seven verses. Though several of these verses have parallels in the Therigatha (mentioned in the notes), a significant number don't, and often the variations in roughly parallel versions are themselves of intrinsic interest. At least one nun in the Bhikkhuni-samyutta, Vajira, does not appear in the Therigatha, while the case of another nun, Sela, is problematic. A comparison between the two collections also brings to light some noteworthy differences in the ascription of authorship; in one case -- that of the three Cala sisters -- a three-way shuffling of ascriptions occurs. Such differences can be readily understood once we realize that the texts were originally transmitted orally for several centuries and thus were contingent on less durable factors than paper and ink. Since the Samyutta Nikaya and the Therigatha were evidently transmitted by different lines of reciters, it was only too easy for verses to break off from their original narrative setting and merge with a different background story connecting them to a different author. The antiquity of this collection is attested to by the fact that it has a counterpart in the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit Samyuktagama, which probably belonged to the Sarvastivada school. Anesaki's The Four Buddhist Agamas in Chinese gives a breakdown of the Chinese equivalent of the Bhikkhuni-samyutta, and though the order of suttas is different, the ten titles are almost identical, except that the Pali Sela Sutta is there entitled Viri (or Vira). This is strong evidence that the entire chapter had taken shape before the Pali and Sarvastivada schools went their separate ways. '
Via Access to Insight: Readings in Theravada Buddhism.

The Gospel of Buddha by Paul Carus, 1894.

Supermarket. Poem.

Synergy is back! Something beautiful almost every day.

American Poems: Poem of the Day.
Via aforementioned Synergy.

The Canterbury Tales. Thanks, slithy_tove.

' In this this second volume of the autobiography of John Harris, a writer on architecture, an archivist and scholar, the self-confessed "country house snooper" continues his "intensely romantic, poignant, angry, frequently hilarious illustrated memoirs" of visits to deserted country houses around the world. One chapter, "Privé--Défense d'Entrer," is an eye-witness account of Harris's discovery of the Désert de Retz in 1952 and contains his descriptions of Monsieur de Monville's Column House as well as the interior of the now-destroyed Chinese House. Now, through special permission of the publisher, you may read this chapter in its entirity.'
Thanks, Ronald.

Many thanks to Hanan of for supplying the following three links! :-

Vulva Puppet Gallery.

Baha'i Shrine and Gardens on Mount Carmel.

High-End Chocolate: Worth the Price?


25th April
Highlanders, Islanders, Headhunters. The ethnic minorities of south east Asia.
' This exhibition focused on the Southeast Asian region - one of the ancestral homelands of the many peoples who settled Singapore. Three areas were highlighted: The 'highlands' of Thailand, the Indonesian archipelago and Borneo. The ethnic peoples found there have lived side by side with the traditional centres of power in Southeast Asia for centuries but due to their resilience, they have managed to preserve much of their cultures. The artefacts on display become our window into their world of rituals, religions and lifestyles. '
Via the Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore.

Sojourn in Nanyang. 'Xu Beihong is regarded as one of the fathers of modern Chinese painting. During the Sino-Japanese war in the 1930s and 1940s, Xu spent time in Singapore, India, Malaya and other parts of Southeast Asia where he held several exhibitions of his works. Xu donated the entire proceeds to the China Refugee Relief Fund. As he was already a well-known artist at that time, the overseas Chinese community enthusiastically collected his work. Many of them saw this as their contribution to the war effort. During his sojourn in Nanyang, Beihong painted portraits for many prominent members of the local Chinese community. In particular, his portrait of the governor, Sir Shenton Thomas caused quite a stir ... '

Paintings by Zhejiang Artists of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Throne of Weapons, Mozambique.

Carved Wooden Mask for the Bedu Cult, Ghana/Ivory Coast.

Mask (Kibwebe), Democratic Republic of Congo.

The New Old World. Antilles: living beyond the myth.
'These photographs of the Native people and communities of the Antilles, by Marisol Villanueva, represent a significant contribution to the study of Caribbean society and challenge the myth of indigenous extinction that often characterizes its history. For centuries before 1492, the islands of the Caribbean were populated by several indigenous cultures, among which the most extended was the Taino. Yucayeques (villages) of Tainos occupied all the Greater Antilles: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Jamaica. At the same time, groups known as Caribs or Caribes populated the islands of the Lesser Antilles. Within decades after Columbus landed at Guanahan (San Salvador), the indigenous population of the Antilles nearly vanished. Many Native people died of violence and diseases. Others escaped to remote places. Others were captured by Spanish authorities and transported to the Iberian Peninsula or to colonies on the Greater Antilles, where they labored on sugar plantations, in mines, and in the extraction of pearls ... '

What's Cooking? Julia Child's kitchen at the Smithsonian.
'In November 2001, when Julia Child left her Massachusetts home of forty-two years to return to her native California, she gave her kitchen to the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, Behring Center.'
'Child's late husband, Paul, designed the kitchen for her in 1961, and there she cooked for herself, for family and friends, for professional colleagues -- and for the entire country. For seven years the kitchen was a set for three enormously popular public-television series. Millions of Americans watched the shows and felt they had cooked, eaten, and laughed there with an old friend.'
'The kitchen is also a setting for the work of a culinary expert. Here Child gave lessons, tested recipes for her cookbooks, and cooked with and for colleagues. The kitchen and its three pantries held tools and utensils that only professionals (and devoted amateurs) use. But ultimately, it was a place for family. Along with the professional equipment we find her favorite gadgets -- the small, simple, familiar objects of daily use at American family meals ... '

George Washington: A National Treasure. Smithsonian exhibit about the famous Gilbert Stuart portrait.

Doris Kearns Goodwin: History, Baseball and the Art of the Narrative. 'Ranging from her days as assistant to President Lyndon Johnson to her passion for the Brooklyn Dodgers, historian and political commentator Doris Kearns Goodwin reveals key moments that shaped her life and forged her love of telling a good story.'

Binding the Nation. 'This gallery is devoted to the early history of mail service from pre-Revolutionary America through the end of the 19th century.'
The Pony Express. 'Known by many at the time simply as "The Pony," the Pony Express remains a dashing symbol of the Old West in America. Its mythic fame out of proportion to its importance, the service lasted less than two years. Yet it remains a familiar chapter of American postal history. The exploitation of the Pony Express and America's western frontier began late in the 19th century with the flood of romanticized Wild West shows and dime novels. From the Wild West shows and dime novels to contemporary motion pictures and television programs, the Pony Express has supplied drama, excitement, and a good deal of fantasy ... '

The Ramapough Mountain People: The Jackson Whites. A people similar to the Melungeons, from the New York/New Jersey border area.
' The Ramapough Mountain People, also known locally, and in the pejorative as The Jackson Whites, are an extended clan of closely interrelated families living in the Ramapo Mountains and their more remote valleys principally in Bergen County, New Jersey, but also in immediately adjacent Passaic County, New Jersey, and Rockland County, New York. Their largely Dutch surnames, de Groot, de Fries, van der Donck, and Mann, in all their variant spellings, are among the oldest in the countryside and predate the Revolutionary War. They live only thirty miles or so from downtown Manhattan which lies just across the Hudson River (see map). They are shy, gentle, proud, and reclusive people who, until relatively recently, seldom ventured far from their mountain homes ... '

Saint Catherine of Alexandria in art.
'The story of Catherine of Alexandria is told in the 'Golden Legend'. She was supposed to have been a Christian convert of noble birth who was married to the Infant Christ, in a vision.'
'The Roman emperor Maxentius desired her and tried to persuade her to abandon her faith. When he failed he sent 50 philosophers to try instead, but she converted them to Christianity by her argument.'
'Maxentius had the philosophers executed and then tried to have Catherine tortured by binding her to four spiked wheels. These were destroyed by a miraculous thunderbolt before Catherine was harmed, but she was eventually beheaded with a sword . ... '
The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine.

Saint Jerome. 'Saint Jerome was the first person to translate the Bible into Latin from the original Greek and Hebrew in 386, and he was an advisor to the Pope Damasus I. Jerome is sometimes depicted wearing cardinals red robes; a red cardinals hat is one of his attributes. He spent four years as a hermit in the desert, and is frequently shown beating his breast with a stone to punish himself for being tempted by sinful thoughts. A tame lion, from whose paw he is said to have removed a thorn, is often present ... '
Saint Jerome in His Study.

Saint John the Baptist in art.

Historical Mathematics Monographs. 'The Cornell University Library Historical Mathematics Monographs is a collection of selected monographs with expired copyrights chosen from the mathematics field. These were monographs that were brittle and decaying and in need of rescue.'
'These monographs were digitally scanned and facsimile editions on acid free paper were created. For more information check our About the Monographs link above. '

The World's Biomes.

Plain Layne is now here.

The Museum of Burnt Food.

Devolution. Via dumbmonkey.

Centennial of Flight. Thx, hama7.

Hassan Massoudy, calligrapher - more. Via Iconomy.

American Pictures and the human family. Incredible. Via MeFi.

' They have been called Saddam's Angels and the Dixie Sluts, traitors and big mouths, all because they made a disparaging remark about President Bush at a concert in London last month ... Now the Texas-based Dixie Chicks are fighting back. They have posed for the cover of next week's Entertainment Weekly cheerfully wearing nothing but the epithets they have attracted and vowing to continue to speak their minds. ' Hooray!
Larger image here.

How to Bow. Thanks, madamjujujive.

24th April
The Baltimore Album Quilt Tradition. 'The Maryland Historical Society's textile and costume collection provides insight to Maryland history from a distinctly different vantage point. Women, those who most often made these textiles, wrote their lives in this visual format. With added information from diaries, letters, and other objects, 19th-century Maryland quilts unfold rich and varied stories of life throughout the state ... '
Via the Maryland Historical Society.

Baltimore Architecture: Then and Now.

More than Meets the Eye: History of Maryland Through Prints, 1750-1900.

Maryland in Focus. Historical photographs of Maryland.
'Who takes the photographs in your family? Who keeps them? Are they carefully arranged in albums or packed away in shoeboxes? Eventually each of us becomes the curator of a collection of photographs that document our life. The Maryland Historical Society has a photograph collection numbering around 400,000 images spanning the earliest years of photography to the present day. How do you choose forty photographs to display from among 400,000? ... '

Mapping Maryland. 'Mapping Maryland traces the visual depiction of Maryland from its pre-colonial times through the mid-nineteenth century. '

A Day in the Life of Africa. 'On February 28, 2002, the race was on; nearly 100 of the world's top photojournalists had 24 hours to document the entire continent of Africa. In this 24-hour journey, the photographers captured images that celebrated the incredible diversity of Africa's people, geography, and customs. Their assignments brought them from the teeming markets of Marrakesh to the windswept deserts of Namibia. They documented the mountain gorillas of Rwanda, a sultan's court in Niger, the hip Lagos music scene, and the quiet dignity of a Zambian AIDS hospice. With access to homes, schools, and workplaces across the continent, they created a rich tapestry of African life as it is lived on one day ... '

The Sudanese Travels of Theodoro Krump.
'Offered here is an English translation of the Sudan portion of Theodoro Krump's Hoher und Fruchtbarer Palm-Baum des Heiligen Evangelij (Augsburg: Georg Schulter & Martin Happach, 1710). The present version is adapted with minor modifications from the Hambata edition of 1979, in turn derived from the copyrighted text of 1974. This work may be reproduced in whole or in part on the sole condition that the source and translator be recognized. '
'Theodoro Krump's account of Sinnar between 1700 and 1702 is in many respects the most important single written source concerning the precolonial history of the Sudan. In addition to invaluable testimony about the structure and functioning of the Funj government before the fall of the Unsab dynasty, Krump contributes data of unparalleled quality on the organization and conduct of the trans-Saharan caravan trade, the commerce in slaves, Sudanese medical practices, Sudanese relations with Ethiopia and a wide array of often unexpected vignettes of daily life. '
'Krump should be cited by virtually every historian of the precolonial Sudan--but he is not. This may in part result from the physical and linguistic inaccessibility of his book, a rare volume composed in an idiosyncratic phonetic rendition of South German dialect reinforced at critical points with material in Latin--not the language of Cicero but the living tongue shared by early eighteenth-century Catholic churchmen from France, Germany, Italy, Malta, Yugoslavia and Palestine. Some of Krump's medical prescriptions are given in "Welsch," meaning Italian. All but the most polyglot of readers of the original Palm-Baum would need to consult a battery of dictionaries ... '

The Chinese Opera.
'In 1790, theater companies from all over China arrived in Beijing, to perform for the Qing Emperor Qianlong's birthday. Four theater companies from Anhui arrived, and their fresh styles of music and theater electrified the capital and eventually came to replace the Kunqu Opera style that had been pre-eminent in the capital for the past two hundred years. Characteristics from other forms of opera, such as Hopeh, Wuhan, and Shansi, were incorporated into the Anhui style. After a while this form of opera became known as Ching Hsi, or 'Capital Play.' Ching Hsi is what we know today as Peking Opera. Because of its long history, Peking Opera encompasses a wide variety of drama, and a wide variety of styles of acting. It emphasizes historical and military plays and can be quite patriotic, and so quite popular. But it is not the only style of opera still extant in China -- many regional Opera styles still exist. Some references list more than 300 regional opera styles in China. Among those still popular are Cantonese Opera, Hebei Clapper Opera, and Yue Opera. '
'Although there are many different regional styles, they all share many similarities. Each have the same four role types: the female, the male, the painted-face, and the clown. Performances consist of singing, poetry, music, dance, and gesture. Emphasis is on costume and makeup rather than props or scenery. The operas often tell the same stories, though with various regional differences, such as alternate endings or additional characters. The information described within this article will, unless otherwise noted, pertain to Peking Opera specifically, and the regional operas more generally ... '

Chinese Tea Ceremony. 'Jan Lee, a gentle, enthusiastic young man who is an apprentice tea master, serves tea in his family's Chinese antique store on Mott Street in New York's Chinatown. Amid the ancient vases and jars, figurines, furniture, lanterns and bird cages, at a small marble and carved wood table, Jan performs the gracious and sensuous Chinese tea ceremony. '
' "The Chinese tea ceremony, unlike the Japanese tea ceremony, emphasizes the tea, rather than the ceremony," says Jan. What the tea tastes like, smells like, and how one tea tastes compared to the previous tea, or in successive rounds of drinking -- that is what participants of the Chinese tea ceremony are most concerned with. Jan performs the ceremony with such grace one doesn't see it as ceremony, but rather as gentle hospitality ... '

The Magic of Traditional Greek Shadow Theatre. 'Long before the days of television, radio or even cinema there existed a different form of entertainment in Greece derived from folkloric traditions. Known as shadow theatre, or "Karagiozis" in Greek, it included paper-made puppets which were handled by one puppeteer who stood behind a white screen (a piece of cloth or a sheet were also used) that was illuminated by some source of light ... '
Thanks, taz.

The Spindle and the Shrine: Daily Life of Women in Classical Times.

Ka ranis: An Egyptian Town in Roman Times. 'Discoveries of the University of Michigan Expedition to Egypt (1924-1935).' With images!

Faces for Peace. An online peace rally; people post pictures of their faces for peace. Thanks, Tim.

My Aunt, the DNA Pioneer. 'Stephen Franklin, nephew of Rosalind Franklin, offers a personal account of his aunt's role in discovering the structure of DNA. '

The Studio Museum in Harlem. Mostly African-American art.

The National Jazz Museum in Harlem.

Sand Mandala.
'Mandala is a Sanskrit word meaning "circle". Mandalas are symbols of the Universe and its energy. Tibetan monks create these archetypal templates to remind us of the cycle of life and death. A Mandala has many layers of meaning, such as cosmic diagrams and support for meditation. '
'Over the past Decade, Tibetan Art has become a part of the western cultural landscape. Periodically the Dalai Lama and groups of Tibetan monks travel around the U.S , conducting healing ceremonies, creating Sand Mandalas, and performing traditional music and dance to bring attention to the ongoing struggles of Tibetans people worldwide and for Tibetan independence. ' 'Appreciating the Sand Mandala as a work of art, we are challenged to see beyond our own defintion of art, with values on innovation and self-expression. In Tibetan ritual arts, collaboration in the execution of the Sand Mandala is considered to be more valuable than originality ... '

Drepung Loseling Monastery, a Tibetan monastery in India.

The Society of the Ark and the Dove 'was founded in 1910 to perpetuate the memory of the first families of Maryland and to provide opportunities for fellowship for all those who trace their descent from Lord Baltimore and from those who came on the Ark and the Dove in 1634 to settle the proprietary province of Maryland ... '
Narrative of the voyage to Maryland, 1633-34. 'On the Twenty Second of the month of November, in the year 1633, being St. Cecilia's Day, we set sail from Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, with a gentle east wind blowing. And after committing the...ship to the protection of God especially, and of His most Holy Mother, and St. Ignatius, and all the guardians of Maryland, we sailed...past a number of rocks...which from their shape, are called the Needles...We left behind us the western promontory of England and the Scilly Isles...sailing easily on...[we passed] over the British channel. Yet we did not hasten, ...fearing, if we left the pinnace [i.e., the Dove] too far behind us, that it would become the prey of Turks and Pirates, who generally infest that sea... '

A Passing Spaceship Views Earth. Great picture.

A Magellanic Mural.

Cyprus border opens. This is good news. Some background on divided Cyprus.

The Milky Way in Infrared.

Deep Throat Uncovered? Via MeFi.

23rd April
Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Lewis & Clark: Mapping the West.

Living a Tradition. 'As they traveled into Shaker country, writers Richard and Joyce Wolkomir went in search of a lost America. At the sect's zenith, during the 1800s, a score of Shaker communities, prosperous and neat, dotted the farmlands from Maine down through New England and into New York, westward to Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky, and south as far as White Oak, Georgia, and Narcoosee, Florida. Now, many of those settlements are torn down , taken over as sites for Shaker museums or put to other uses. Only, it turns out, at Sabbathday Lake, in New Gloucester, Maine, do the world's last eight Shakers keep the old ways. '

Shaker Valley.

Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village.

Enfield Shaker Museum, New Hampshire.

Adire African Textiles. 'Over the centuries the weavers, dyers, and other textile artists of Africa have created an amazing and exciting array of textiles in a huge variety of styles. Some African textiles such as adinkra, kente and bogolan are becoming increasingly well known. Others such as Yoruba aso-oke and adire are perhaps less familiar but equally wonderful. We want to share our love of these masterpieces of African textile art with you over the following pages.'

African American Quilting Traditions. Great images.

Record of Priest Xuan Zhuang's Trip to India, Heian period, 12th century.

Standing Twelve Heavenly Generals, Kamakura Period.

Buddha, Gandhara, Pakistan, 2nd century.

An Aztec Bestiary.

The Living Tradition of Yup'ik Masks.

The Solar System in Pictures. 'This website has 315 web pages with over 340 pictures. This website has 2 purposes: To give a pictorial overview of the solar system and to quiz you about these pictures.'

National Archive of Geological Photographs.

Bathing and Boating. Collection of great paintings from the National Gallery, London.

Self Portraits.

Flowers and Fruit.

Pinacotheca Holmesiana. Sherlock Holmes illustrations.
Via Iconomy.

The New Chosen. Undercover among America's secret theocrats. A scary bunch indeed. Shades of The Handmaid's Tale.
Via MeFi.

Eternal Fascism: Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt, by Umberto Eco.
'In spite of some fuzziness regarding the difference between various historical forms of fascism, I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it ... '

Trotsky: Fascism - What It Is and How to Fight It. Via MeFi.

How to Give Up Hope - An Exile Guide. Via MeFi.

Happy St. George's Day. St. George, patron saint of Aragon, agricultural workers, archers, armourers, Beirut, Lebanon, Boy Scouts, butchers, Canada, Catalonia, cavalry, chivalry, Constantinople, England, equestrians, farmers, Ferrara Italy, field hands, field workers, Genoa Italy, Georgia, Germany, Gozo, Greece, herpes, horsemen, horses, husbandmen, Istanbul, knights, lepers, leprosy, Lithuania, Malta, Moscow, Order of the Garter, Palestine, Palestinian Christians, plague, Portugal, riders, saddle makers, saddlers, skin diseases, skin rashes, soldiers, syphilis, Teutonic Knights, Venice.

Onomatopoeia in Many Languages. Via MeFi.

' The US military has revealed it is holding juveniles at its high-security prison for terrorists at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, known as Camp Xray.'