Avedon at Work in the American West. 'Avedon was ready to go
forward. He had spent almost forty years photographing people close to
his own world in New York City: creative people, people from the worlds
of fashion, theater and the arts. He was ready to take time out from the
responsibilities of a demanding studio. Although he had worked in the
South during the Civil Rights movement and in Vietnam during the Anti-
War movement, he was anxious to complete his unfinished portrait of
America. He knew that to widen this portrait, he needed to look at a
whole different segment of society. He sensed that one of the great,
hidden strengths of the nation came not so much from either coast, but
from the country's interior and its hard working, uncelebrated people
Aftermath by Ziyah Gafic.
'I am impressed by his knowledge of history, of events and, for me; this
represents an exciting guiding principle when working with a
photographer. Gafic is different by nature from the great western
photographers who went to work in Bosnia with commitment and courage,
sacrificing money, carrier, time, private life and who have left a
documentation of great importance, a portrayal on 5 years of war seen
through the eyes of a Westerner, but who have often admitted to be
devastated and powerless in front of this experience (let's not forget
that the War has caused 250.000 dead people and 1,500.000 refuges); he
is different because he sees all this with an extra eye, if you can say
it like this, because he felt this experience on his own skin as a boy
and after a few years he told us all about it to make us act politically
and be an active part in what we live ... '
Baghdad: One Year Later.
'One year. Saddam Hussein's image has been replaced by that of Imam Ali,
the Shiite martyr. Crime is out of control. Coalition forces who thought
of a warm welcome now fear for their lives. Resistance guerillas push a
fragile Iraq even closer to civil war. And if for photographers nothing
has changed, you still can't take pictures of anything remotely dealing
with the military without a hassle, for many Baghdadis the business at
hand is still finding food, medicine and the simple basics of life ...
My First Stories, America 1971-75.
'When I review my life as a photographer, I feel blessed and fortunate
to have experienced so many wonderful emotions, the most significant
being the sense of being alive, being powerfully alive. These beautiful
experiences began with a book by the master French photographer Henri
Cartier-Bresson, a gift from my parents while I was hospitalized with a
knee injury sustained during a high school football game. It was 1971, I
was 16 years old, and that year in my hometown of Ft Wayne, Indiana, I
discovered photography. Cartier-Bresson's work awakened me to the glory
that existed in the common moments of daily life. Suddenly my primary
mode of self-expression, sporting activities, gave way to countless
forays into the inner city of my hometown, always with my camera.
Photography expanded my world. It has always been for me, a medium
through which I can share my observations and responses to the world ...
Playing with Krishna. God as child in art and mythology.
'A beautiful young woman, in the full bloom of her femininity, once
entered the residential premises of a provincial chief of cowherds.
Dressed attractively, she appeared very comely, what with her raised
hips, nicely swollen breasts, earrings, and the heavily scented flowers
in her hair. The thin waist added in no small measure to her allure. Her
smiling face captivated the hearts of everyone present and she found it
easy to glide in to the innermost chambers where the chief's wife was
resting along with her newborn infant son. Approaching the adoring
mother, she offered to suckle the young one from her own breasts. There
was no question of refusing the request. The lady accepted the child
into her open arms and held him to her bosom. The baby took one breast
in his little hands and started sucking. Then a strange thing happened.
From the look of a strange triumph, the woman's expression first
transformed into one of surprise and shock and then into agony, and
finally her features contorted into a mask of anguish and shrieks of
pain escaped her lips. Her efforts to take away the breast from his soft
grip were futile. Her cry was so intense that both sky and the earth
reverberated with its echo. As the child pressed her breast extremely
hard and sucked out her very life, she fell to the ground. With her arms
and legs spread, she began to cry, "Oh, child, leave me, leave me!"
Suddenly, as she entered the spasms of death, her beautiful appearance
disappeared, revealing a monstrous personality beneath ... '
Kailas: Manasarovar & Tibet.
'Mount Kailas (22,028 ft, 6,714 m), the famed holy peak, is situated to
the north of the Himalayan barrier in Western Tibet. This legendary
snow-shrouded rock dome is one of the most revered pilgrimage sites for
Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Bonpos (Pre-Buddhists) and draws pilgrims
from India, Nepal, Mongolia, Tibet, Japan, China, Southeast Asia and
other parts of the world. At the slopes of Kailas, a stream is said to
pour into Manasarovar and from this lake, flow four of Asia's great
rivers the Indus, the Brahmaputra, the Karnali and the Sutlej ... '
Last Word. Science questions and answers, courtesy of the New
A Talk.Bizarre Sampler.
'What IS talk.bizarre, anyway?
'It's a newsgroup. It's a sewer. It's a social group of (not for)
literate misfits. Or, to quote Tom Boutell, I've come to believe that talk.bizarre must be simultaneously a
loving, hugging, COME HOLD ME YOU BIG GALOOT community of sweet
sensitive koala bears and a boiling death-swamp of fifty-foot fire-
breathing clue mosquitoes. Otherwise, the koala bear population would get OUT OF CONTROL and
INBREED, and pretty soon we'd have ALT.CUDDLE. Otherwise the fire-
breathing clue mosquitoes would GET HUNGRY AND ATTACK REC.PETS.CATS, AND
LORD KNOWS WE CAN'T HAVE THAT. Wait a minute, they already have.'
Artists' Guild, Lhasa.
'Usually groups are formed through someone's initiative. However, this
particular Gedun Choephel Artists' Guild came together naturally
through shared experiences and common interests. We were all born in
the turbulent 1960s and 70s. We lived through the rationing period of
Chairman Mao, and remember his passing away. We also have experienced
the radical modernizing changes brought about by Deng Xiao Ping
throughout China ... '
The Geometry Junkyard.
'These pages contain usenet clippings, web pointers, lecture notes,
research excerpts, papers, abstracts, programs, problems, and other
stuff related to discrete and computational geometry. Some of it is
quite serious, but I hope much of it is also entertaining.'
Images of Mass Graves in Somaliland.
'This is the sort of crime that does not have a statute of limitations .'
'Floods at the Malka Durduro site in Hargeisa's dry river bed
unearthed a series of mounds containing the bodies, half a kilometre
(mile) from the main gate of the headquarters of the 26th division of
the late President Siad Barre's army. '
'The finding is the first of its kind and confirms rumours that mass
graves existed in the Somaliland capital, but the identities of the
bodies and their manner of death remain unclear...'
Pop and Politics.
'PopandPolitics.com began as a prototype blog site, my personal
journal from the New Hampshire Primary, the Iowa Caucus, the political
conventions and beyond. The response was overwhelming: other young
Americans (and people from other nations) wanted to contribute to the
political debate, too. So we grew from a one-person outlet into a
mini-magazine. We gained thousands of readers and subscribers, and got
honors ranging from Cool Site of the Day to being named to Alternet's
list of New Media Heroes. Most recently, we were named number seven on
PoliticsOnline.com's survey of the top 25 Who Are Changing the World
of Internet and Politics, ahead of Meetup.com and behind AOL. The only
problem: we didn't have any cash ... '
'Leo Tolstoy is one of Russia's greatest authors. This
site provides a biography, pictures, geneology,
reading tips, and various other resources in hopes that more of us will
discover Leo Tolstoy.'
Chios. Interactive map of monuments, museums and
ancient sites on the Greek island.
The Coming of the Fairies, by Arthur Conan Doyle.
'Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, in his later years
became attracted to spiritualism and occult topics. This was after the
death of his son Raymond during World War I. While researching the topic
of fairies, some photographs from a working-class family in rural
Yorkshire were brought to Doyle's attention by a Theosophist friend.
These photographs appeared to show diminutive fairies cavorting in the
presence of humans, specifically two teenage girls, Elsie and Frances.
They had taken the photographs by themselves, and there were no overt
signs that the negatives had been tampered with. Doyle championed the
photographs, and in the process destroyed his reputation; which is
probably why this book, out of all of the Doyle corpus, has not been put
into etext until now. The Coming of the Fairies was possibly a bigger
disappointment for Doyle fans than when he killed off Sherlock Holmes.'
Etiquette in Society, in Business, in
Politics and at Home, a
guide to American manners from 1922.
'Far from being a proscriber of minutiae, Post the philosopher offers a
way of living: "Manners are made up of trivialities of deportment which
can be easily learned if one does not happen to know them; manner is
personality-the outward manifestation of one's innate character and
attitude toward life." Post gives us thousands of tips on
correspondence, wedding planning, party giving and conduct in every
public or private setting.'
Iroquoian Cosmology, 1903.
'This is a set of literal translations of three Iroquois creation myths,
from the Onondaga, Seneca and Mohawk tribes respectively. The
interlinear translations in the original have been omitted for technical
reasons. These myths are of great interest for several reasons. The
Iroquois Confederation was the dominant culture group in the
northeastern region at the time of European contact, and as such has
maintained its traditions in a fairly intact state. There are minor
infiltrations of Biblical elements in the narrative, which are, however,
easy to recognize.'
'The Iroquois had a matrilinear culture in which men and women shared
power, which is reflected in this myth by the strong participation of
female demi-gods in the creation. The translation is by an experienced
anthropologist writing for an academic audience and so it is almost
completely free of the sentimentality and prudishness that infected
other contemporary books about Native American mythology and folklore. '
Babbage. 'Charles Babbage (1791-1871) is widely regarded as the
first computer pioneer and the great ancestral figure in the history of
computing. Babbage excelled in a variety of scientific and philosophical
subjects though his present-day reputation rests largely on the
invention and design of his vast mechanical calculating engines. His
Analytical Engine conceived in 1834 is one of the startling intellectual
feats of the nineteenth century. The design of this machine possesses
all the essential logical features of the modern general purpose
computer. However, there is no direct line of descent from Babbage's
work to the modern electronic computer invented by the pioneers of the
electronic age in the late 1930s and early 1940s largely in ignorance of
the detail of Babbage's work ... '
Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de
Berry. 'The Très Riches Heures is the classic example of a medieval
book of hours. This was a collection of the text for each liturgical
hour of the day - hence the name - which often included other,
supplementary, texts. Calendars, prayers, psalms and masses for certain
holy days were commonly included. ' 'The pictures in this exhibition
are from the calendar section of the Très Riches Heures. This was
painted some time between 1412 and 1416 and is arguably the most
beautiful part of the manuscript; it is certainly the best known, being
one of the great art treasures of France. In terms of historical and
cultural importance, it is certainly equal to more famous works such as
the Mona Lisa, marking the pinnacle of the art of manuscript
The Evil Eye, 1895.
'There is another concept of "why bad things happen" that probably
predates the theory that there is one centralized source of evil. This
is, to use a computer anology, a peer-to-peer theory of evil. The evil
eye is a widespread belief that unlucky events can ensue if you attract
the attention of particular people. These people, sometimes
involuntarily, sometimes voluntarily, can cast a malignant spell on
others simply by looking at them. ' 'This lavishly illustrated work
is the classic study of this superstition. Starting with a mass of
anecdotes from contemporary observations in Italy and rural England,
Elworthy, using all of his skills as a folklorist and etymologist,
delves deeper. He gives examples of the belief on a world-wide basis and
far back in time, to classical paganism and beyond. He also elaborates
all of the methods that have been used to ward off the jettatura,
including talismans, spells, spitting, hand gestures and many others.
' 'Belief in the evil eye is still very active even with the advance
of modernity. As I was researching this topic in preparation for
developing this etext, I stumbled on a Google link to a middle-eastern
chat board. The posting included detailed and very arcane descriptions
of rituals that one could use to purge an attack of the evil eye. So the
evil eye is still with us, and even if you don't believe in it, there
are many cultures which take it very seriously. Understanding the
malocchio is an important part of being a world citizen. '
Back to the Ranch: The Photographs of Matt O'Brien.
'When I was little, I used to love going to my uncle's ranch. It was
beautiful and full of life and so different from suburban San Mateo
across the bay where I lived. I have very early memories of being at a
round up at the ranch -- the excitement I felt at seeing my Uncle John
and other ranchers bringing in the cattle, the sounds of hundreds of
hooves hitting the ground as the cattle rushed into the corrals, the
mooing, the smoke, the smells of the animals and of the branding. I
remember standing on the corral sides watching the roping and all the
activity in amazement. '
'As a kid I took ranching and ranches and their being a part of life in
the Bay Area for granted; it was one of the things that made life rich.
I don't take it for granted anymore, because ranches and ranching in the
East Bay are disappearing, and they're disappearing fast.'
History of the Smithsonian's Arts and Industries Building.
'When the Arts & Industries Building opened in 1881, it was the
embodiment of the hopes anddreams of one man, Spencer Fullerton Baird
(1823-1887), second Secretary of the Smithsonian. The opening of Arts &
Industries also irrevocably established the Smithsonian as the national
museum of the United States. When James Smithson (c.1765-1829) wrote his
will, he was quite vague about what he expected his institution for "the
increase and diffusion of knowledge" to be. The United States Congress
debated for a decade whether the Smithsonian should be a library,
university, astronomical observatory, scientific research institute, or
even a museum. A quintessential American political compromise, the 1846
act establishing the Smithsonian included almost all of these things.
The first Smithsonian Secretary, Joseph Henry (1797-1878), a physicist,
wanted the Smithsonian to be primarily a scientific research institute.
He was reluctant to run a museum or national library that might use all
the Smithsonian's funding and leave little for basic research. He
believed museums reached only a local audience and the Smithson bequest
shouldn't be spent on popular attractions. '
Balfour W. Currie: The Second International Polar Year.
'Balfour Watson Currie (1902-1981) was associated throughout his
academic career with the University of Saskatchewan, as a Professor and
Head of the Department of Physics, founder of the Institute of Space and
Atmospheric Studies, Dean of Graduate Studies and Vice-president,
Research.' 'Frank Thomas Davies (1904-1981) taught as a Lecturer in
the Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan; was a member of
Byrd's first Antarctic Expedition; was Director of the Carnegie
Geophysical Observatory in the Peruvian Andes; and was Director-General
of the Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment.' 'They
worked together at Chesterfield Inlet during the Second International
Polar Year (1932-1933). Their records and data analysis from that period
were of primary importance in shaping future research in aurora borealis
and upper atmospheric studies.'
Literature Reimagined: An Exhibition of Illustrated Texts.
'Some works of literature transcend their times and continue to speak to
readers. The plays of Shakespeare, the poetry of Emily Dickinson, the
stories of Edgar Allan Poe still captivate generation after generation.
Artists, printers, and publishers also continue to be inspired by these
icons of literature and continue to present them in new and innovative
ways. "Literature Reimagined" offers multiple editions of popular
literary works, focusing on the ways in which they have been
reinterpreted over time. These books have been transformed by artists,
writers, and publishers to conform to their personal visions and the
work's perceived audience.'
Cooking-School Cook Book, 1918.
'This classic American cooking reference includes 1,849 recipes,
including everything from "after-dinner coffee"-which Farmer notes is
beneficial for a stomach "overtaxed by a hearty meal"-to "Zigaras à la
Russe," an elegant puff-pastry dish. Bartleby.com chose the 1918 edition
because it was the last edition of the cookbook authored completely by
History of Rock n Roll.
'Rock-and-Roll (räk'n roll') n. first so used (1951) by Alan Freed,
Cleveland disc jockey, taken from the song "My Baby Rocks Me with a
Steady Roll". The use of rock, roll, rock and roll, etc., with reference
to sexual intercourse, is traditional in blues, a form of popular music
that evolved in the 1950's from rhythm and blues, characterized by the
use of electric guitars, a strong rhythm with an accent on the offbeat,
and youth-oriented lyrics ... '
'... This web page attempts to explore the roots of rock in such a way
as to illuminate the natural progression of musical styles. Too often
the study of rock begins with Bill Haley and His Comets and includes
scant information about the blues and rhythm records that he, and
others, used as a model. A musical genre does not simply appear, it
gradually evolves to a point in time when some event-performance,
publication, or recording allows listeners to perceive its unique
qualities and apply a label. Wyonnie Harris' 1947 recording of "Good
Rocking Tonight" was one of many "rhythm records" made during the late
1940s, however when it was recorded by Elvis Presley in 1954 it seemed
like a new and different approach. What made it seem new and different
was its context. Without exploring the history of black popular music,
country and western music, race relations, technical developments, and
the music business one can be led easily to the conclusion that rock and
roll was some new and different music which appeared suddenly. '
Hangul. The fascinating story of a unique alphabet.
'Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as
opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). For other romanized
spellings of "Hangul," please see Names below.' 'While Hangul writing
may appear ideographic to the uninitiated, it is actually phonetic. Each
Hangul syllabic block consists of several of the 24 letters (jamo)-14
consonants and 10 vowels. Historically, the alphabet had 3 more
consonants and 1 more vowel ... '
Stalin's Death, 1953.
'Joseph Stalin had been leader of the Soviet Union for nearly 30 years.
Though he is now considered responsible for the deaths of millions of
his own people through famine and purges, when his death was announced
to the people of the Soviet Union on March 6, 1953, many wept. He had
led them to victory in World War II. He had been their leader, the
Father of the Peoples, the Supreme Commander, the Generalissimo ... '
'George Fox, widely regarded as the founder of the Quaker movement, made
a historic journey in 1652, which culminated in his arrival at
Swarthmoor Hall in June of that year. His story starts in Fenny Drayton
in the Midlands. A very serious-minded young man, he was disillusioned
by what he saw as the religious hypocrisy of "so-called professors of
the Christian faith", and left home to wander the countryside. He came
to believe that God could speak directly to each person without the need
for priests or churches, and he set out to spread his message. In 1651,
in Derby, he was arrested (not for the first time) and jailed for 12
months for illegal preaching. On his release he journeyed north and
found himself on Pendle Hill, on the top of which, looking out over
Lancashire towards the Irish Sea, he had a vision of a "great multitude
waiting to be gathered." '
'He found "the great multitude" on Firbank Fell a little later when he
met up with the Westmoreland Seekers under the leadership of Francis
Howgill and John Audland. It is said that Fox convinced 1000 people on
that occasion, and many regard the place as the birthplace of the Quaker
The Children of Odin, 1920.
'This is Padraic Colum's retelling of the Eddas and the Volsung Saga
for young adults. Colum and Pogany also collaborated on The Adventures
of Odysseus, and The King of Ireland's Son. ' Illustrated.
& Baker. Web comic.
'The main characters Able (the monkey) and Baker (the sheep) are named
after the first pair of animals to survive a space flight in 1959. Like
their predecessors, Able and Baker are research animals for the space
Australian Observer: The Photographs of Harold Cazneaux 1878-1953.
'The photographs of Harold Cazneaux are timeless in their creative
beauty and their extraordinary tonal qualities.' 'Cazneaux was the
leading exponent in Australia of the school of 'pictorial photography.'
Indeed, Max Dupain once called him 'the father of modern Australian
photography.' The pictorialists argued that every photograph should be a
work of art and that the camera was an aesthetic instrument to be used
on the way to a final image rather than a purely functional tool. This
approach is most evident in Cazneaux's bromoil prints, in which the
final image is produced by brushing an oil pigment on to the
The Kama Sutra. 'The Kamashastra is the ancient Indian treatise
governing the relationship of humans and the sexes. Its origins can be
traced to very first rules of conduct (along with the Dharmashstra and
the Athrashastra) in Hinduism. Numerous saints and sages wrote
commentaries on the treatise for the common man, known as the Kamasutra
(kaa-ma-soo-tra, meaning Aphorisms on Love), but as Kamat points out in
his Introduction to Erotic arts of India, most of these works have been
lost.' 'Fortunately one such guide by sage Vatsyayana (a.k.a.
Vatasayana) written in the early part of the Christian era (see a note
on dating of the Kamasutra) is available today in its full form and
beauty, and is generally referred to as The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana or
simply the Kamasutra. '
A gallery of sexual positions in Indian art.
Not safe for work.
Jesuits in the Sciences 1540-1995. 'A remarkable characteristic of
the Society of Jesus during the period of its first founding (1540-1773)
was the involvement of its members in the sciences. The reasons for this
interest in scientific study can be found in the nature and mission of
the order itself. Saint Ignatius Loyola considered the acquisition of
knowledge and the performance of mundane labor as spiritually profitable
tasks, and this fostered in the Society an action-oriented, utilitarian
mentality sympathetic to scientific study. In addition, the role of the
Society as the "schoolmasters of Europe" meant that the pedagogically
(and scientifically) useful principles of rationality, method and
efficiency were highly valued. The tight-knit organization of the
Society created among its members habits of cooperation and
communication, essential for the gathering and exchange of scientific
information. Finally, mission work in Asia and the Americas gave the
Jesuits opportunities and impetus to study and record the phenomena of
these new worlds. '
The Bishop Museum Ethnology Collection. 'The Bishop Museum's
Ethnology Collection includes more than 70,000 objects from throughout
the Pacific region.'
'Photographs and detailed information are available for more than 400
cultural objects.' 'We've grouped them to help you find some of the
more popular cultural objects. Click on a group to the right to learn
Hawaiian Ethnobotany. 'Please browse the cultural and scientific
information about 145 plants commonly used in traditional Hawaiian
culture. More information, plants, and pictures are coming soon.
Search by Hawaiian names or scientific names. There isn't a one-to-one
match but we've followed experts such as Mary Kawena Pukui, Isabella
Abbott, and Beatrice Krauss as much as possible. '
Autographs. Online galleries - Lyndon Johnson, Tolkien, J. Edgar
Hoover, Mark Twain, and others.
'The links to the left contain photographs of, and details about, their work. The artists are committed to creating a series of ten murals for the entire length of Rossville Street in the Bogside. There are currently nine murals completed and it is hoped to finish the final mural in the summer of 2004. The Artists published a book about their work in December 2001.'
Georgia 1918-21. Photographs from a brief period of independence for
Georgia in the Caucasus following the Russian Revolution.
'The October Revolution of 1917 has destroyed the Russian Empire. On May
26, 1918, on the meeting of National Council in Tiflis, Georgia was
declared to be a Sovereign Democratic Republic. Noe Zhordania, the
leader of Social-Democratic Party became the head of Georgian Government
... Georgia was looking for the ways of free development under the
permanent pressure of external danger and was striving for the
acknowlegment of it's independence ... '
Islamic Art of the Deccan.
'The "Deccan" (derived from Dakshina) is a geographical term that refers
to the plateau in south central India still ruled by Hindu kings when
the first Muslim sultanates of India were established in Delhi. The
Khaljis (1290-1320) and the Tughluqs (1320-1414) after them both tried
to conquer the Deccan but were ultimately unsuccessful. The officers of
Muhammad ibn Tughluq rebelled against him and an independent sultanate
was declared under the leadership of the general Zafar Khan. His
descendants, known as the Bahmanids (1347-1528), ruled from a capital
located first in Gulbarga and later in Bidar ... '
Aaron Thomas: The Caribbean Journal of a Royal Navy Seaman. 'The
journal of Aaron Thomas, housed in the Archives and Special Collections
Division of the Otto G. Richter Library at the University of Miami, is a
374 page leather-bound volume containing approximately 367 pages of
handwritten material. The journal begins on June 15, 1798 and concludes
on October 26, 1799, and chronicles the experiences and adventures of a
British seaman serving in the Royal Navy aboard HMS Lapwing in the West
Indies during the French Revolutionary wars. The journal contains
insightful, first-hand accounts of naval operations, customs of the day,
and humorous, detailed anecdotes involving shipmates and superiors.
Thomas, who joined the navy in 1793, includes entries regarding the
health and punishment of the men aboard ship, as well as his personal
views on slavery, religion, and morality. With the exception of the
final three pages, all entries are written in Thomas's hand. '
Austin Beginnings. Texan history. 'Austin's history has been filled
with events great and small, significant and trivial, historic and
amusing. All have contributed to building the city that is first in our
hearts. Finding these milestones is one of the pleasures of conducting
research in the Austin History Center. The staff, volunteers, and
customers of the Austin History Center share just a few of the memorable
firsts that we have discovered in our files.'
Austin Streets. 'Austin's street history truly begins in 1839, just
prior to the city's founding, when Mirabeau B. Lamar, President of the
Republic of Texas, commissioned his old war-time friend Edwin Waller to
survey the site for the new capital city and to oversee its planning and
construction. Waller, who had participated in the signing of the
Declaration of Independence and was well-acquainted with pioneering
work, accepted the task. After the area was thoroughly surveyed and the
first city plan drafted, Waller and his team of 160 men proceeded to
convert the wilderness site into a working city within a matter of
months.' 'The city was laid out in a simple grid pattern on a single
square-mile plot with 14 blocks running in both directions. One grand
avenue, which Lamar named "Congress," cut through the center of town
from Capitol Square down to the Colorado River. The streets running
north-south (paralleling Congress) were named for Texas rivers with
their order of placement matching the order of rivers on the Texas state
map. The east-west streets were named after Texas trees, despite the
fact that Waller had recommended using numbers (they were eventually
changed to numbers in 1884). The city's perimeters stretched north to
south from the river at 1st Street to 15th Street, and from East Avenue
(now IH-35) to West Avenue. Remarkably, much of this original design is
still intact in the downtown area today.'
Austin College: Sherman Journal 1873-86. 'The history of Austin
College may be viewed as a 150 year-old success story. It may also be
viewed as a history of crises. The coming of Austin College to Sherman,
Texas, in 1876, was born of a series of such crises. At a crucial time
in his campaign for the College, Daniel Baker died suddenly in Austin in
1857. Four years later Civil War preoccupied the state as well as the
nation. Free schools siphoned off prospective students during
Reconstruction. A national economic depression in 1873 further
discouraged private school enterprise. Right from the start, the venture
in Sherman ran into difficulty. The move intended to relieve one crisis
created others. The problems of Texas, the South, and the nation could
not be overcome by a geographic cure. That Austin College survived the
move to Sherman, indeed, that it survived at all, was more than a
testament to Presbyterian pride and tenacity; one might say it was
nothing less than a miracle of Divine Providence. Minutes of the
trustees' meetings tell the story.'
Word on the Street: Scottish Broadsides. 'In the
centuries before there were newspapers and 24-hour
news channels, the general public had to rely on
street literature to find out what was going on. The
most popular form of this for nearly 300 years was
'broadsides' - the tabloids of their day. Sometimes
pinned up on walls in houses and ale-houses, these
single sheets carried public notices, news, speeches
and songs that could be read (or sung) aloud.' 'The
National Library of Scotland's online collection of
nearly 1,800 broadsides lets you see for yourself what
'the word on the street' was in Scotland between 1650
and 1910. Crime, politics, romance, emigration,
humour, tragedy, royalty and superstitions - all these
and more are here.' 'Each broadside comes with a
detailed commentary and most also have a full
transcription of the text, plus a downloadable PDF
facsimile. You can search by keyword, browse by title
or browse by subject.'
Delight Makers, 1890. 'Adolf Bandelier was a
pioneering Southwestern explorer and anthropologist.
This is a novel based on his experiences with the
Pueblo Native Americans of New Mexico. The
ethnographic novel very rarely works as either
ethnography or novel. In this case, it works as both.
Not only does The Delight Makers open a door into the
world of the pre-Columbian Pueblo Indians, it is also
a great contribution to the literature of the
Southwest.' 'The Delight Makers is a Greek tragedy
of a story, in which the treachery of a woman causes a
community to fall apart. As the story progresses, we
become immersed in Pueblo culture, to the point where
we don't even notice when Bandelier stops explaining
the untranslated terms and unfamiliar customs. '
Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie. 'Andrew
Carnegie's life embodied the American dream: the
immigrant who went from rags to riches, the self-made
man who became a captain of industry, the king of
steel. He preached the obligation of the wealthy to
return their money to the societies where they made it
-- then added, says Carnegie's biographer, Joseph
Frazier Wall, "a very revealing sentence. He wrote,
'and besides, it provides a refuge from
self-questioning.'" Produced by Austin Hoyt. David
Ogden Stiers narrates. '
Rockefellers. 'For decades, the Rockefeller name
was despised in America–associated with John D.
Rockefeller Sr.'s feared monopoly, Standard Oil. By
the end of his life, Rockefeller had given away half
his fortune–but even his vast philanthropy could not
erase the memory of his predatory business practices.
His only son, John D. Rockefeller Jr., would dedicate
his life to recasting the family image. In the quest
for redemption and respectability, Junior would give
away hundreds of millions of dollars, and would insist
that his six children behave impeccably. Their
contributions transformed America. When he died at age
86, Junior left his six children and 22 grandchildren
an invaluable inheritance: a name which stood not for
corporate greed, but for "the well-being of mankind."
Expressions. 'Welcome to the Molecular Expressions
Photo Gallery. Our portfolio of galleries contains
thousands of full color photomicrographs (photographs
taken through a microscope) and digital images
selected from our many image collections.' 'It is
very easy to view examples from any of our
collections. Simply pick the button below that
describes the collection of your interest, and you
will link to a summary of that collection that
includes information about the collection as well as
several example photomicrographs.' E.g.,
The Shipwreck by Claude Joseph Vernet.
'The wind came out of nowhere, lifting the sea and slamming our ship
into the rocky shore. A blanket of clouds quickly closed in-but for the
ragged flashes of lightning, we were in the dark. With thunder blasting
like cannons at close range, men leapt into the surf, towing a line and
tying the ship to a rock, while I, along with my sons, slid down the
rope line to safety. A drowning woman, pulled from the sea, lay half-
dead on the beach as we came ashore, and another leaned into the wind,
exhausted, crying out to the heavens.'
Saga. An Icelandic saga about a genuinely quirky, hideously ugly,
kind and heroic, and introspective character.
'The characters in the Egilssaga are well marked and forcibly drawn. In
the house of Kveldulf, old Kveldulf himself, Thorolf the elder,
Skallagrim, Egil, stand forth as real men with characters well-sustained
throughout. Outside the family king Harold is well drawn, the able
ruler, generous in much, but suspicious, as a tyrant must needs be. His
son Eric is violent, but weaker, and swayed by his wife Gunnhilda, who
is to him somewhat as Jezebel [vi] was to Ahab. Arinbjorn is perhaps the
noblest character in the story, the brave, generous, true friend. But
the reader will estimate these and others for himself; of the hero who
gives his name to the Saga a few words will not be out of place. Egil
certainly must have been a remarkable man. Strong in body beyond his
fllows, he was no less uncommonly gifted in mind, a poet as well as a
soldier. Brave he was even to foolhardiness, yet wary withal and
prudent; full of resource in danger, never giving up the game however
desperate; a born leader, liked and trusted by his men. His character
has its unpleasant side; he was headstrong, brutal at times when
provoked, determined to have his own way, and overbearing in pursuit of
it. Yet there is nothing mean or little about him; he does not engage in
petty quarrels, he helps or hinders kings and great chiefs. He is
outspoken and truthful, and his ire is especially stirred by meanness
and falsehood in others. To women he is pleasant and courteous, as
appears on several occasions. For the sake of his friend Arinbjorn and
his kin he risks his life more than once.'
Paintings of Ravi Varma.
'Great injustice has been done to the artist Ravi Varma in our country
because he used modern hues and oils in his work and because of the
western influence in his paintings. The critics said his was not Indian
art. To me, Ravi Varma is not only among India's greatest artists, but
also a great patriot. His depiction of the beauty of the Indian woman is
unequalled in Indian art.'
Percy & Ruth Crawford and the Birth of Televangelism:
An Exhibit of the Bill Graham Centre Archives.
'In the mid-1990s, Americans suddenly awakened to the Internet, and
especially the possibilities of e-mail and the World Wide Web, although
earlier versions of the Net had been available for decades. In much the
same way, in the late-1940s television began to make an impact on
American society. Growing numbers of people were able to watch and react
to the small flickering black and white images of Howdy Doody, the World
Series, roller derby, Milton Berle, Hopalong Cassidy, Meet the Press and
'While Fundamentalist and Evangelical Protestants quickly became
concerned about the programs transmitted over the new medium, some also
saw it as a new means of communicating the Gospel. Potential TV
broadcasters were concerned that the opportunity be open to all who
could pay the costs and meet industry standards. They wanted the new
industry to avoid the restrictions that had for many years limited the
hours of religious radio broadcasts to those of a few "representative"
mainline denominations ... '
Vanuatu: A Photographic Exhibit. 'David Becker has lived on a
sailboat in the Western Pacific for more than 20 years. He is currently
based in New Caledonia, just south of Vanuatu. He specializes in
cultural photography, working with museums and other cultural
institutions, primarily in Melanesia. ' 'Sailing through Papua New
Guinea for eight months in 1986, Becker saw how rapidly traditional
cultures were being changed by contact with the outside world. With
friends, he founded The Society for the Recording of Vanishing Cultures,
and has since devoted his life to this work.'
' "It is important to record this precious heritage before it
disappears. I hope that whatever I can do will help future generations
realize the beauty,the richness, and the dignity of this way of life." '
Austin at Work.
Texan social history. 'Most of us get up and go to work on most days. We
work to make money, to make a difference, to fulfill our dreams, and
sometimes even to enjoy ourselves. It hasn't been that different in
Austin since Waller and his 200 workers toiled on a short deadline in
1839 to build the city in the wilderness that became our capital.'
by Paul Creswick, 1903. 'This is Paul Creswick's able retelling of
the Robin Hood myth. The Robin Hood narrative first surfaced as a short
mention in Piers Plowman, and accreted details through folk-tales,
ballad, literature, and of course, cinema. Like other English literary
productions such as King Arthur or Sherlock Holmes, the fact that Robin
Hood is a fiction is almost irrelevant; people want to believe that he
was an actual historical personage. Creswick's version of this tale
brings it to life, and the luminous Wyeth illustrations complete the
and His Followers. 'Trained in Milan and active in Rome (1592?1606),
Naples (1606?7; 1609?10), Malta (1607?8), and Sicily (1608?9),
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571?1610) was one of the most
revolutionary figures of European art. His practice of painting directly
from posed models violated the idealizing premise of Renaissance theory
and promoted a new relationship between painting and viewer by breaking
down the conventions that maintained painting as a plausible fiction
rather than an extension of everyday experience ... '
Bible. 'The Woman's Bible, written by famous 19th Century feminist
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and a "Revising Committee", is one of the first
attempts by women to evaluate the Judeo-Christian legacy and its impact
on women through history. Stanton concluded that 'the Bible in its
teachings degrades Women from Genesis to Revelation'. However she and
the other contributors found much to admire in the Bible, particularly
some of the Old Testament women. While many of her views are still
controversial, time and advances in womens' rights have lessened some of
the shock value of this book. Stanton doesn't go as far as some modern
feminist theologians and proclaim 'God is a woman', but there are
several contributions which discuss the gender of the 'Elohim' and the
female aspects of the Kabbalah.'
Oceanography from the Space Shuttle.
'Oceanography from the Space Shuttle is a pictorial survey of oceanic
phenomenon visible to the naked eye from space. Originally published in
1989, it is now out of print and only available on this web site. To
navigate, click on the shuttle and then follow the arrows pointing right
- or you can reach any page from the table of contents. Thumbnail images
give a preview of each chapter's photographs. '
Oliphant's Anthem. 'Pat Oliphant won the Pulitzer Prize for editorial
cartooning in 1966, just two years after he left his native Australia
for an American career. Now, thirty years later, he is considered among
the most gifted practitioners in the history of the profession. He has
caricatured seven United States presidents, from Lyndon Johnson to Bill
Clinton, and offered provocative graphic commentary on salient social
and political issues of the past three decades, including Watergate,
Vietnam, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the Gulf War. Few
artists have done as much to influence the form and content of
contemporary American political cartoons.' 'Oliphant weds two great
traditions in political cartooning: the subtle wit and detailed artistry
of the British tradition with the more blunt, spare style that persists
in America. At the Library of Congress his cartoons and sketchbooks will
preserved alongside the most extensive collection of American political
prints in existence, one of the finest assemblages of English satirical
prints outside Great Britain, and thousands of original works by the
most influential European and American cartoonists from the seventeenth
century forward. When asked what it means to be included in this august
company, Oliphant responded, "to be in these collections is, to me,
every award I could possibly want." '
The Age of
Saint Louis. 'Thus Jean, sire de Joinville, friend and Crusader in
the company of Louis IX of France, describes the degree to which people
venerated the king as a saint even during his lifetime. Following his
death, nearly 400 witnesses gathered at Saint-Denis to testify to his
sanctity. There, in the royal abbey, a chapel came to be dedicated to
Saint Louis (Two Grisaille Panels, 1982.433.3,4). There the faithful-
and, in particular his own descendants-came to pray and honor his
example (The Hours of Jeanne d'Évreux, 54.1.2), for during his long
reign (1226-70), both the saintly king and the nation thrived, and the
city of Paris was firmly established as the premier artistic and
intellectual center of Europe. At the end of Louis's reign, 101
different craft guilds were established in the city; the university
welcomed scholars and students from across Europe.'
Mystery Plays. 'York
Mystery (Corpus Christi) Plays are a magnificent example of medieval
drama. Using the colourful language of medieval Yorkshire, they present
the 'history of the world' from the mystery of God's creation, through
the birth, death and resurrection of Christ, to the Last Judgement.
' 'To the people who first drew together to perform and watch the
Plays, the battle between Good and Evil was not theoretical theology,
but an all-pervading fact of life. Disease and sudden death were an
ever-present threat. '
'The Plays taught a simple message, but not in a simple way. Written to
appeal to all sections of the community, they were sophisticated, often
lavish, always theatrical ... '
'The Socialist Realism, an ideology enforced by the Soviet state as the
official standard for art, literature etc., was defined in 1934 at the
First All-Union Congress of Soviet writers. It was based on the
principle that the arts should glorify political and social ideals of
communism. Every artist had to join the "Union of Soviet Artists", which
was controlled by the state. The paintings had to be idealisations of
political leaders and communistic ideas.'
Shotei Gallery. Shin hanga. 'The
child who was later to be known as Takahashi Shôtei was born, Matsumoto
Katsutaro, in Mukoyanagiwara, Asakusa, Tokyo on January 2, 1871. As a
child, he was adopted into the Takahashi family, becoming known as
Takahashi Katsutaro. At the age of 9, he was apprenticed to his uncle,
Matsumoto Fuko (1840-1923), with whom he studied Japanese-style
painting. According to tradition, Fuko gave him his art name "Shotei" a
variant of his own surname "Matsumoto". The first Japanese character of
their names is pronounced either "Sho" or "Matsu" ... '
Cherokee Ball Play with
Remarks On Ojibwa Ball Play, 1890. 'Among their other many
cultural gifts to the world, Native Americans contributed the game which
later became known as Lacrosse. The Cherokee Ball Play vividly describes
the ethnography of this sport with particular attention to its ritual
significance.' 'This sport served as means of community social
cohesion, an occasion for some big wagers, a surrogate for battle with
other villages, and sounds like a great deal of fun. Many of the
ceremonial aspects will be familiar to anyone involved with High School
football. Some of the practices required a very high tolerance for pain.
On a spiritual level the game is a magical battle between shamans, and
the rituals and ceremonies used to gain advantage are of great
interest.' 'This monograph includes musical notation for some of the
songs transcribed by none other than John Phillip Sousa.'
Formulas of the Cherokee, 1891. 'This is an ethnographic description
of Cherokee shamanistic practice. Based on several manuscripts written
by Cherokee shamans of the 19th Century, this includes the actual text
of the rituals to treat various diseases, information on herbs used,
love spells, hunting rituals, weather spells, as well as a spell for
victory in the Ball game. '
Lindbergh. 'At 25,
Charles A. Lindbergh -- handsome, talented, and brave -- arrived in
Paris, the first man to fly across the Atlantic. But the struggle to
wear the mantle of legend would be a consuming one. Crowds pursued him,
reporters invaded his private life. His marriage, travels with his wife
and the kidnapping and murder of their first child were all fodder for
the front page ... '
soldier in modern history has been more admired -- or more reviled.
Douglas MacArthur, liberator of the Philippines, shogun of occupied
Japan, mastermind of the Inchon invasion, was an admired national hero
when he was suddenly relieved of his command. A portrait of a complex,
imposing and fascinating American general. '