'Shinto is a general term for the activities of the Japanese people to
worship all the deities of
heaven and earth, and its origin is as old as the history of the Japanese.
It was towards the end of
the 6th century when the Japanese were conscious of these activities and
called them 'Way of
Kami(the deity or the deities )'. It coincides the time when the 31st
Emperor Yomei prayed before an
image of Buddha for the first time as an emperor for recovery of his
illness. Thus accepting
Buddhism, a foreign religion, the Japanese realized existence of a
tradition of their own faith.'
Stories of the
Underground Railroad. Escaped
slaves made their way to Canada via the Underground Railroad.
'Anna L. Curtis's Stories of the Underground Railroad was published in 1
941 by The Island Workshop
Press Co-op Inc. It is a colletion of true stories and biographies of
persons who worked on the
underground railroad. The stories related in this collection are written
for children, but address
real issues and do not patronize the reader. Stories of the Underground
Railroad entered the public
domain when its copywrite was not renewed in the early 1970's. I hope
you enjoy this book as much as
I have. '
Chicago Tunnel Company Railroad.
'This website tells the story about a 60-mile, two-foot gauge electric
railroad that operated 149 locomotives and over 3000 freight cars in
small tunnels forty feet below the streets of downtown Chicago. '
The Furrs. Joel
Furr was a well-known Usenet personality of the
early to mid 90s. A piece of Internet history.
'Unawatuna, 5km south east of Galle, Sri Lanka, was a thriving beach
destroyed by the Asian Tsunami on the 26th of December 2004.
people of Unawatuna have lost every thing - families, homes and
livelihoods. Friends at Unawatuna, set up by survivors of the disaster,
a long term project. The aim is to help the villagers rebuild the
infrastructure necessary to allow them to reconstruct their
'1749-1832, German poet, dramatist, novelist, and scientist, b.
Frankfurt. One of the great masters of world literature, his genius
embraced most fields of human endeavor; his art and thought are
epitomized in his great dramatic poem Faust. '
Specimens of Ainu Folk-lore.
'These folktales were originally published in the Transactions of the
Asiatic Society of Japan in three installments. The printed original is
in parallel columns with the Ainu alongside Batchelor's English
translations, and these Ainu versions are still considered a valuable
source today (one of them was retranslated by Donald Philippi in his
excellent collection Songs of Gods, Songs of Humans [Tokyo, 1979]); the
untranslated Ainu has, however, been eliminated in this version...'
The Cambridge History of
English and American
'Considered the most important work of literary history and criticism
ever published, the Cambridge History contains over 303 chapters and
11,000 pages, with essay topics ranging from poetry, fiction, drama
and essays to history, theology and political writing. The set
encompasses a wide selection of writing on orators, humorists, poets,
newspaper columnists, religious leaders, economists, Native Americans,
song writers, and even non-English writing, such as Yiddish and
American Indians of the Pacific Northwest.
'This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700
pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas
of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These
resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing,
clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment. The
materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University
of Washington Libraries, the Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture
(formerly the Cheney Cowles Museum/Eastern Washington State Historical
Society), and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle. '
'This collection consists of approximately 4,500 photographs
documenting natural environments, ecologies, and plant communities in
the United States at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of
the twentieth century. Produced between 1891 and 1936 by a group of
American botanists generally regarded as one of the most influential
in the development of modern ecological studies, these photographs
provide an overview of important representative natural landscapes
across the nation. They demonstrate the character of a wide range of
American topography, its forestation, aridity, shifting coastal dune
complexes, and watercourses. Comparison of early photographs with
later views highlights changes resulting from natural alterations of
the landscape, disturbances from industry and development, and
effective natural resource usage. The photographs were taken by Henry
Chandler Cowles (1869-1939), George Damon Fuller (1869-1961), and
other Chicago ecologists on field trips across the North American
Forward. English language edition of
Yiddish socialist newspaper - first published in
The Saraphina Mosey
A journey through Europe.
'Richard Thompson and Sara Genn are two young Canadians who remotely
published this European travelogue while on the road with their 1978 Alfa
Romeo Alfetta. Mosey features over 2000 photographs, original paintings
and drawings and twelve months of daily journal entries.'
Century in Print: The Making of America in Books and Periodicals.
'This collection comprises books and periodicals published in the
United States during the nineteenth century, primarily during the
second half of the century. Most of the materials were digitized
through the Making of America project, a collaboration of Cornell
University and the University of Michigan to preserve textual
materials on deteriorating paper and make them accessible
electronically. The materials selected illuminate the subject areas of
education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and
science and technology. Also included are volumes of American poetry.
Macrocosmica by Andreas
'Harmonia Macrocosmica, by Andreas Cellarius, is part of the Marriott
Library's Rare Book
Collection. Printed in 1661, it is an atlas of the heavens as seen by
the astronomers of the times:
Copernicus, Ptolemy, Brahe, and Aratus. There are 30 double-folio
hand-painted color plates, plus
approximately 200 pages of accompanying text in Latin. '
Presidents of the United
'Welcome! In this resource you will find background information, election
results, cabinet members, notable events, and some points of interest on
each of the presidents. Links to biographies, historical documents, audio
and video files, and other presidential sites are also included. '
The Soviet Army.
'Welcome to the largest and most comprehensive site on the Soviet armed
forces on the Internet. We aim to offer users the ability to easily find
out more information on what was arguably the largest conventional armed
forces in history.'
'Amusing America is the story of participatory commercial amusements in
American cities-San Francisco in particular-and how they changed the
way Americans lived. From the Gilded Age of the 1880s to World War II,
amusement parks, world's fairs, arcades,
seaside resorts and dance pavilions brought Americans together from all
walks of life to share in new forms of leisure and new social
'Since the 17th century
the commonplace book was used to record "good sayings
and notable observations", for the owner it served as a personal
repositary of wisdom and information.'
'The development of scrap books and albums date from the 18th century,
they contained a wide variety of printed material, as well as paintings,
drawings and "...a medley of scraps, half verse and half prose and
somethings not very like either, where wise folk and simple alike to
combine, and you write your nonsense, that I may write mine." '
'In early 2001, San Francisco Public Library staff began finding
vandalized books shoved under shelves, hidden throughout the Main
Library. Ultimately over 600 torn and sliced books, on gay, lesbian,
bisexual and transgender topics, women's issues and HIV/AIDS, were
deemed beyond repair and withdrawn from the Library's collection.
Rather than discard the damaged books, the Library distributed them
to interested community members in the hope of creating art. The wide
variety of artistic responses to this hate crime resulted in "Reversing
Vandalism," an exhibition of over 200 original works of art, displayed
in the Main Library from January 31 through May 2, 2004. '
Native Life in South Africa,
Before and Since the European War
and the Boer Rebellion, by
Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje (1876-1932).
'We have often read books, written by well-known scholars, who disavow, on
behalf of their works, any claim to literary perfection. How much more
necessary, then, that a South African native workingman, who has never
received any secondary training, should in attempting authorship disclaim,
on behalf of his work, any title to literary merit. Mine is but a sincere
narrative of a melancholy situation, in which, with all its shortcomings,
I have endeavoured to describe the difficulties of the South African
Natives under a very strange law, so as most readily to be understood by
the sympathetic reader. '
'The information contained in the following chapters is the result of
personal observations made by the author in certain districts of the
Transvaal, Orange "Free" State and the Province of the Cape of Good Hope.
In pursuance of this private inquiry, I reached Lady Brand early in
September, 1913, when, my financial resources being exhausted, I decided
to drop the inquiry and return home. But my friend, Mr. W. Z. Fenyang, of
the farm Rietfontein, in the "Free" State, offered to convey me to the
South of Moroka district, where I saw much of the trouble, and further, he
paid my railway fare from Thaba Ncho back to Kimberley ... '
Emilio Segre Visual
'A collection of some 25,000 historical photographs, slides, lithographs,
engravings, and other visual materials, the Emilio Segrč Visual Archives
is part of the Niels Bohr Library of the Center for History of Physics at
the American Institute of Physics. The collection focuses on American
physicists and astronomers of the twentieth century, but includes many
scientists in Europe and elsewhere, in other fields related to physics,
and in earlier times. '
Kwaidan: Stories and
of Strange Things. Japanese folklore.
'The publication of a new volume of Lafcadio Hearn's exquisite studies of
Japan happens, by a delicate irony, to fall in the very month when the
world is waiting with tense expectation for news of the latest exploits of
Japanese battleships. Whatever the outcome of the present struggle between
Russia and Japan, its significance lies in the fact that a nation of the
East, equipped with Western weapons and girding itself with Western energy
of will, is deliberately measuring strength against one of the great
powers of the Occident. No one is wise enough to forecast the results of
such a conflict upon the civilization of the world. The best one can do is
to estimate, as intelligently as possible, the national characteristics of
the peoples engaged, basing one's hopes and fears upon the psychology of
the two races rather than upon purely political and statistical studies of
the complicated questions involved in the present war. The Russian people
have had literary spokesmen who for more than a generation have fascinated
the European audience. The Japanese, on the other hand, have possessed no
such national and universally recognized figures as Turgenieff or Tolstoy.
They need an interpreter.'
Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis. Art.
'Mikalojus Konstantinas iurlionis, known in his family as "Kastukas", was
born on September 22 (new style), 1875, in Varna, Lithuania, in what was
then the Kaunas province of the Russian Empire. His father, Konstantinas
iurlionis, was a church organist; in his time the organ had been almost
the only instrument with which one could hope to become a professional
musician and, in any case, he had been fascinated by the organ's capacity
to 'sing' in several voices at the same time. iurlionis mother, Adel
Radmanait, had met his father when she, a Calvinist, had visited a
Catholic church and had been struck by both the sound of the organ and the
appearance of the organist. In 1878 the family moved to Druskininkai, a
resort town in the Gardinas province ... '
'My grandfather was on hand when Benito Mussolini, Italian dictator during
World War II, was executed. He brought back some photos from the scene. I
also include other photos of Mussolini, both living and dead as an
'Cenni di Pepo, called Cimabue (c.1240 - after 1302), born in Florence,
was the most famous Italian painter of his generation. He is mainly known
as the teacher of Giotto, whom, according to the legend, Cimabue found
when the latter was working as a shepherd, drawing a lamb on a flat stone,
and took him to his workshop in Florence. '
The Philip K. Dick
'You will find more than 1200 covers of Philip K Dick's books, including
a complete collection of covers of American and British editions of his
books (science -fiction, mainstream, non-fiction and collections) and a
complete collection of pulp magazines containing PK Dick's short
The Book of Revelation, 1919.
'This is the Rev. Clarence Larkin's guide to the Book of Revelation.
Larkin, who published several books about biblical studies in the 1910s
and 20s, was a 'Dispensationalist,' one of the threads of modern
Evangelical Christianity. The predecessor of Larkin is J.N. Darby, the
founder of Dispensationalism, and among his many successors are Hal
Lindsay, and the Left Behind books. '
The Waldensians. Anabaptist site. Links to
more pages on Anabaptist history.
'In 1174, a French businessman in Lyons, Valdes, was challenged by the
radical teaching of Jesus in the Gospels and responded by committing
himself to a life of voluntary poverty and preaching. He experienced a
dramatic conversion, renounced his previous business practices, threw
his money out into the street, and after running a soup kitchen during
the famine of 1176, began a new life as an itinerant preacher ... '
'Stefan Mart was the narrator and illustrator of the picture book Tales of the
Nations, published in Hamburg in 1933 by the "Cigarettenbilderdienst Hamburg-Bahrenfeld"
("Cigarette Picture Service"). It won the hearts of innumerable children and grown-ups in the
course of the six years that it was in print. This was due above all to the 150 colour illustrations:
they were small in size, but strong in expression, each a microcosm packed with action, each a feast
for the eyes like a beautifully set jewel; everything was finely-drawn and clear, indeed with the
exaggerated clarity of the caricature; they all radiated the shining, flaming colourfulness of modern
painting. These pictures stimulated the imagination and the emotions, moved to laughter and to
tears, could frighten and warn. But above all, they gave rise to astonishment - and they have
continued to do so to this day. ' Via
'The digital library of text and information about people, places and
businesses from the medieval and early modern period, built by the
Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust.'
The 1964 New York World's Fair. The future we were promised -
how they imagined what 2005 would be like.
'The 1964-65 World's Fair featured 140 pavilions on 646 acres, the
old site of the 1939-40 New York's World Fair. Althought the majority of
the pavilions were United States commerical companies, there were also
21 state pavilions and 36 foreign pavilions. It was the dawn of the space
age and the fair's theme was "Man in a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding
'The camp was established in 1942 as a summer camp for African-American
youth. Initially called the " West Virginia Negro 4-H Camp," its name
was soon changed to "Camp Washington-Carver" in honor of two prominent
black Americans: Booker T. Washington and George Washington
'Originally administered by West Virginia State College, in 1978 the
West Virginia Division of Culture and History received responsibility
for the camp, which was rededicated in 1980. Since that time it has
continued to serve as a mountain arts cultural center, as well as a
general camp for various groups.'
'The exhibit focuses on the camp's early period through the eyes of
those who either worked there or enjoyed its facilities as children. '
The Tsukiji Hongwanji Temple.
'This Home Page is my feeble attempt to introduce the Tsukiji Hongwanji
Buddhist Temple. This temple roots back to the 17th century, when the
Jodo Shinshu Mother Temple in Kyoto established a temple here in EDO,
olden day Tokyo. Although it has a characteristic structure and ideal
location, visitors have not always entered this grand, historical temple
building, but have only seen it from the perimeter. '
'This small exhibit in the lobby of the Herbert Hoover Presidential
Library-Museum features political pins and other political memorabilia
almost exclusively from the Museum's collection. Although the entire
exhibit is housed in one case, it features rare and special items from
campaigns from Abraham Lincoln to Al Gore and George W. Bush. A
selection of some of the items in the exhibit can be viewed below. '
The Museum of Unworkable Devices.
'This museum is a celebration of fascinating devices that don't work. It
houses diverse examples of the perverse genius of inventors who refused
to let their thinking be intimidated by the laws of nature, remaining
optimistic in the face of repeated failures. Watch and be amazed as we
bring to life eccentric and even intricate perpetual motion machines
that have remained steadfastly unmoving since their inception. Marvel at
the ingenuity of the human mind, as it reinvents the square wheel in all
of its possible variations. Exercise your mind to puzzle out exactly why
they don't work as the inventors intended. '
'This is an adaptation of a booklet written by my mother, Janet Gyford.
It details the entries in the Domesday Book relating to the town of
Witham, in the county of Essex, in the UK. The Domesday Book was a
record of the survey of England carried out in 1086 by William the
Conqueror in order to assess taxes and find out other details of the
country he conquered 20 years earlier. The book is preserved in two
volumes at the Public Record Office, London, and its name comes from the
belief that its judgement was as final as that of Domesday. Apart from
this paragraph, and a couple of necessary alterations, all the material
is as originally written.'
Lord of the
'Lord of the Flies is a thought-provoking novel authored by William
Golding in 1954. The book describes in detail the horrific exploits
of a band of young children who make a striking transition from
civilized to barbaric. Lord of the Flies commands a pessimistic
outlook that seems to show that man is inherently tied to society,
and without it, we would likely return to savagery. '
'This web site contains descriptions of the main characters,
summaries, and themes and symbolism in Lord of the Flies, as well as
a three-dimensional rendering of the island. '
'Sunset Boulevard (1950) is a classic black comedy/drama, and perhaps
the most acclaimed, but darkest film-noir story about "behind the
scenes" Hollywood, self-deceit, spiritual and spatial emptiness, and the
price of fame, greed, narcissism, and ambition. The mood of the film is
immediately established by the posthumous narrator - a dead man floating
face-down in a swimming pool.'
Robert Southwell (1561-95).
Life and literature.
'Poet, Jesuit, martyr; born at Horsham St. Faith's, Norfolk, England,
in 1561; hanged at Tyburn, 21 February, 1595. His grandfather, Sir Richard
Southwell, had been a wealthy man and a prominent courtier in the reign
of Henry VIII. It was Richard Southwell who in 1547 had brought the poet
Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, to the block, and Surrey had vainly begged
to be allowed to "fight him in his shirt" ... '
'Bonhoeffer's theologically rooted opposition to National Socialism
first made him a leader, along with Martin Niemueller and Karl Barth, in
the Confessing Church (bekennende Kirche), and an advocate on behalf of
the Jews. Indeed, his efforts to help a group of Jews escape to
Switzerland were what first led to his arrest and imprisonment in the
spring 1943. His leadership in the anti-Nazi Confessing Church and his
participation in the Abwehr resistance circle (beginning in February
1938) make his works a unique source for understanding the interaction
of religion, politics, and culture among those few Christians who
actively opposed National Socialism...'
'According to Bede, writing in the 7th century, Cćdmon was a cow-herd at
a Yorkshire monastery, who was unable to sing in public until he
miraculously found himself able to sing the Creation, a poem of nine
lines. Saint Hilda, the abbess of Whitby Abbey, encouraged his new
calling and asked him to join the monastery. The poem appears in the
margins of some copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English
People, and is the oldest surviving text in English. '
Omaha Indian Music.
'Omaha Indian Music features traditional Omaha music from the 1890s and
1980s. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains 44 wax
cylinder recordings collected by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham
Fletcher between 1895 and 1897, 323 songs and speeches from the 1983
Omaha harvest celebration pow-wow, and 25 songs and speeches from the
1985 Hethu'shka Society concert at the Library of Congress. Segments
from interviews with members of the Omaha tribe conducted in 1983 and
1999 provide contextual information for the songs and speeches included
in the collection. Supplementing the collection are black-and-white and
color photographs taken during the 1983 pow-wow and the 1985 concert, as
well as research materials that include fieldnotes and tape logs
pertaining to the pow-wow. '
'A versatile scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived approximately 275-195
BC. He was the first to estimate accurately the diameter of the earth.
For several decades, he served as the director of the famous library in
Alexandria. He was highly regarded in the ancient world, but
unfortunately only fragments of his writing have survived. Eratosthenes
died at an advanced age from voluntary starvation, induced by despair at
his blindness. '
The Eureka Stockade.
'The Eureka Stockade was a miners' revolt in 1854 in Victoria, Australia
against the officials supervising the gold-mining region of Ballarat. It
is often regarded as being an event of equal significance to Australian
history as the storming of the Bastille was to French history or the
Battle of the Alamo to the history of the United States, but almost
equally often dismissed as an event of little long-term consequence.
Although the revolt failed, it was a watershed event in Australian
politics, and is often characterised, arguably incorrectly, as the
"Birth of Australian Democracy." '
The Roses of Heliogabalus.
'Heliogabalus is a famous painting of 1888 by the Anglo-Dutch
academician Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, at present in private hands,
and based on a probably invented episode in the life of the Roman
emperor Heliogabalus (204-222). Heliogabalus is portrayed attempting
to smother his unsuspecting guests in rose-petals released from false
ceiling panels. '
Brahe: Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica. Astronomy history.
'Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was a Danish astronomer who built the best
observatory in Europe and set a new standard for accurate celestial
observations in the era before the invention of the telescope. Tycho
had the advantage of being born into one of the most important noble
families of Denmark. Raised by his uncle, Tycho managed to avoid the
usual custom of becoming a courtier or armed knight, ending up in the
service of the King. Instead, Tycho pursued his true interests in the
humanities and the sciences, particularly astronomy.'
'Miles Davis was born on May 26, 1926 in Alton, Illinois. He was known
to the general public primarily as a trumpet player. However, in the
world of music he had a great deal of influence not only as a
innovative bandleader but also as a composer. His music and style was
important in the development of improvisational techniques
incorporating modes rather than standard chord changes. Miles
experiments with modal playing reached its apotheosis in 1959 with his
recording of Kind of Blue. '
'For several years I have been photographing memorial and cemetery art
from around the world. This project explores the conscious and
unconscious themes and symbolic content of the art. At issue is of
course man's struggle with transcendence and his own mortality. As the
project progressed, I began to discover many very sensual images of
beautiful young women depicted in the memorial art in the cemeteries I was
visiting. The use of these compelling nude figures was particularly
common in the cemeteries of France, Russia, and Italy. Certainly
sensuous figures are linked to a long tradition in Western art
celebrating the female form in both secular and religious settings.
However, very intriguing questions emerged around the significance of
this particular art form in the cemetery. How is it that these very
powerful images have come to offer solace at times of loss, what is
the significance of the link between Thantos and Eros in this very
powerful art form? These questions have launched an extended research
project on the issue. The research continues, however to date the
following information and insights have emerged. I would greatly
welcome viewer comments on this work.'
'Joyce Compton reigned as Hollywood's favorite "dumb blonde" during its Golden
Age, appearing in dozens of movies between 1925 and 1958. Over the course of her career,
she played chorus girls, nurses, waitresses, secretaries and even ladies of the evening. You may
have seen her in several classics, without even realizing it. ' Via
'Theresa Pollak (1899-2002) was one of Virginia's most well-known artists
and art educators. She was instrumental in the founding of VCU's School
of the Arts. '
Medical Artifacts Collection.
'The Medical Artifacts Collection consists of instruments and equipment
related to the history of health care in Virginia over the last 150
years. The collection, a group of over 3,500 objects, contains
representative instruments from nineteenth-century medical practice
including lancets, amputation sets, medicine chests, stethoscopes,
obstetrical forceps, microscopes and dental forceps. '
Woodrow Wilson. PBS site (or is that hagiography?).
'An intellectual with unwavering moral principles, he led America onto
the world stage at a time when war and chaos threatened everything he
cherished. Woodrow Wilson explores the transformation of a history
professor into one of America's greatest presidents. Wilson's life
was shaped by great conflicts: the Civil War which he lived through
as a child, and the First World War into which he reluctantly led America
as president. The second conflict ultimately claimed him as a victim.
While campaigning for his far-sighted League of Nations, he suffered a
paralyzing stroke from which he never fully recovered. The only
president incapacitated in office, Wilson carried out his duties from
bed with the help of his wife Edith who became the de facto chief
Nuesas Historias /
Puerto Rican history.
Though Puerto Ricans have had a presence in Connecticut as early as the
19th century, the largest numbers began arriving in the mid-1940s, during
World War II. Puerto Ricans were employed in tobacco cultivation, factory
work, and in the defense industry, replacing American men and women who
had gone overseas. Many of these newcomers found Connecticut to be
dramatically different from their home in language, climate, custom, and
Happy New Year. This weblog was exactly five years' old
The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake.
'The 1755 Lisbon earthquake took place on November 1, 1755 at 9:20 in the
morning. It was one of the most destructive and deadly earthquakes in
history, killing over 100,000 people. The quake was followed by a tsunami
and fire, resulting in the near total destruction of Lisbon. The
earthquake had a strong impact on 18th century society, including
accelerating a political conflict in Portugal and being the subject
of the first scientific study of an earthquake's effect over a large
The Electronic Beowulf.
'The Electronic Beowulf is an image-based edition of Beowulf, the great
Old English poem surviving in the British Library in a composite codex
known as Cotton Vitellius A. xv. It won the 2001 Beatrice White Prize
awarded by the English Association (United Kingdom) "for outstanding
scholarly work in the field of English Literature before 1590." '