The Washington Monument. The US
National Parks Service
'Alone among the Founders of the United States George Washington earned
the title "Father of his Country" in recognition of his leadership in the
cause of American independence. Appointed commander of the Continental
Army in 1775, he molded a fighting force that won independence from Great
Britain. In 1787 as President of the Constitutional Convention, he helped
guide the deliberations to form a government that has lasted for more than
200 years. Two years later he was unanimously elected the first President
of the United States. Washington defined the Presidency and helped develop
the relationships among the three branches of government...'
Vietnam Then & Now.
'This site is designed to educate students and people of all ages about
the country of Vietnam. We include sections on the history of Vietnam, the
Vietnam War, the government of the country today, the geography and
scenery, and the people and culture of this unique country. Our viewpoints
section includes interviews, reviews of books, our views about Vietnam,
and a place where you can tell us and our visitors about any experiences
you have had in Vietnam, or tell us any information that you have about
the country. We hope that this site will help people learn about Vietnam,
and encourage them to do more research on their own. '
A Narrative History of
'The history of Wales is primarily a story of struggle. It is a tribute to
the people of Wales' determination to survive against overwhelming odds --
a struggle reflected not only in its castle-dominated landscape and its
surviving Celtic language, but also in its long literary history. Created
in a time when the flood of Germanic pagan invaders from the continent
threatened to destroy Christian Celtic civilization in Britain, its
history continued through the depredations of the Vikings, the invasions
of the Normans, the oppression of the powerful Marcher Lords, and the
ever-constant, ever threatening power of the English people and the
'The blues is one of America's greatest musical treasures. A roots music
form that evolved out of African-American work songs, field hollers,
spirituals, and country string ballads more than a century ago, the blues
is the foundation of virtually every major American music form born in the
20th century, including jazz, rhythm and blues, rock and roll, and hip
hop. As profound as the blues has been to the national music experience,
it has only occasionally entered the American classroom, mostly through
individual teachers who were committed blues fans and who created their
own methods to integrate the music into curricula...'
The Hall of Forgotten
'Their names have reverberated throughout the annals of history:
Washington; Jefferson; Jackson; Lincoln; Roosevelt; Reagan.
We all know of these great men and their deeds.
But there have been others who also achieved the pinnacle of
public office in the United States, yet are seldom mentioned...'
Impressionist works lost after WW2.
'We would like to introduce you to some French paintings from the end of
the XIX - beginning of the XX centuries. Until the late 1990s, these
paintings had never been exhibited to the public and were known only
through old catalogues and photos. The works were originally kept in
private collections in Germany; but during the Second World War, they were
hidden to prevent their destruction. After the fall of Germany, many items
of art were moved to the USSR, though, during the following years, most of
them were returned to East Germany. However, the paintings belonging to
West Germany and private citizens, who left to the West, were kept on the
territory of the USSR...'
Starshift Crisis. An
excellent daily comic
'You will not find any parody here, except in the broadest sense that, it
is a sci-fi strip set on a spaceship, and of course there has to be a
"onboard computer causes trouble for the ship" story. Eventually. Rather
than crib from pop culture, I hope to populate an entire universe in which
to put Curator Vanderbeam, Mr. Jinx, and his decadent starship museum
through their paces. '
Journals of the
'The First Continental Congress met from September 5 to October 26,
1774. The Second Continental Congress ran from May 10, 1775, to March
2, 1789. The Journals of the Continental Congress are the records of
the daily proceedings of the Congress as kept by the office of its
secretary, Charles Thomson. The Journals were printed
contemporaneously in different editions and in several subsequent
reprint editions. None of these editions, however, includes the
"Secret Journals," confidential sections of the records, which were
not published until 1821.' Browse.
Quixote in the Web.
'We'll periodically be offering you chapters of Don Quixote in English
along with the original Gustave Doré illustrations. They will be
listed below in order as we offer them.' Chapter
'Spanish medieval poetry covers four centuries. This assumes a
considerable amount of texts of different natures: narrative poetry,
almost Provençal lyrics, Castilian texts written in Arabic characters
The Spanish ballads.
Su Shi. Chinese poet
Selected poems in
'To what can our life on earth be likened?
To a flock of geese,
alighting on the snow.
Sometimes leaving a trace of their passage. '
Slavery and the
'Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860 contains just over a hundred
pamphlets and books (published between 1772 and 1889) concerning the
difficult and troubling experiences of African and African-American
slaves in the American colonies and the United States. The documents,
most from the Law Library and the Rare Book and Special Collections
Division of the Library of Congress, comprise an assortment of trials
and cases, reports, arguments, accounts, examinations of cases and
decisions, proceedings, journals, a letter, and other works of
historical importance. Of the cases presented here, most took place in
America and a few in Great Britain. Among the voices heard are those
of some of the defendants and plaintiffs themselves as well as those
of abolitionists, presidents, politicians, slave owners, fugitive and
free territory slaves, lawyers and judges, and justices of the U.S.
Supreme Court. Significant names include John Quincy Adams, Roger B.
Taney, John C. Calhoun, Salmon P. Chase, Dred Scott, William H.
Seward, Prudence Crandall, Theodore Parker, Jonathan Walker, Daniel
Drayton, Castner Hanway, Francis Scott Key, William L. Garrison,
Wendell Phillips, Denmark Vesey, and John Brown. '
England. Exceptional village community website.
'These pages provide a comprehensive guide to the village, the local
services and community organisations, and include all the latest
village news, plus a diary of future events.'
The New Deal
Selections from the Federal Theatre Project 1935-39.
'This online presentation includes over 13,000 images of items
selected from the Federal Theatre Project Collection at the Library
of Congress. Featured here are stage and costume designs, still
photographs, posters, and scripts for productions of Macbeth and The
Tragical History of Dr. Faustus as staged by Orson Welles, and for
Power, a topical drama of the period (over 3,000 images). Also
included are 68 other playscripts (6,500 images) and 168 documents
selected from the Federal Theatre Project Administrative Records
(3,700 images). The Federal Theatre Project was one of five
arts-related projects established during the first term of President
Franklin Delano Roosevelt under the Works Progress Administration
The Oxford Book of French
'These 317 works begin with the emergence of Villon as the first
master of verse; to the Renaissance men Ronsard and Du Bellay; through
the dramatic verse of Corneille and Racine; concluding with the
Romanticism of Hugo and Gautier.'
'Igor Emmanuilovich Grabar was born in Budapest (then the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Hungary) in 1871. His parents, and
grand-parents, were active participants of the Slav liberation
movement and were persecuted by the government. The little boy saw his
parents very rarely. In 1876 his father had to flee to Russia; his
wife and the boy follow in 1880. In 1882, after graduating from a
gymnasium in the provincial town of Egorievsk, Grabar studied in the
Moscow Lyceum, where, along with academic studies he learnt painting,
studied art, visited galleries and exhibitions and made acquaintances
with artists, art patrons and critics. His classmates and teachers in
the Lyceum served as models for his first paintings; he was also fond
of landscapes ... '
Leonids: 1833 to 1997.
'The night of November 12-13, 1833, not only marks the discovery of the
Leonid meteor shower, but sparked the actual birth of meteor astronomy.
During the hours following sunset on November 12, some astronomers noted
an unusual number of meteors in the sky, but it was the early morning
hours of the 13th that left the greatest impression on the people of
eastern North America. During the 4 hours which preceded dawn, the skies
were lit up by meteors ... '
'In 1910 the Palace Administration of Tsarskoe Selo published a book to
commemorate the 200 anniversary of the founding of the town. It was a
deluxe edition with portraits of the Emperor and his family at the
begining of it. The book was very popular in Russia at the time and has
been recently republished there in Russian ... '
European Sculptors 1200-1700.
'This tour offers you a list of the sculptors arranged in approximate
chronological order appended by short explanations of the stylistic
periods within the indicated time range.'
The Kumulipo, translated by Queen
'This is Queen Liliuokalani's translation of the Hawaiian Creation
chant, the Kumulipo. She translated this while under house arrest at
Iolani Palace, and it was subsequently published in 1897. This is an
extremely rare book which was republished (in a very scarce edition) by
Pueo Press in 1978. '
Biography of Sir Laurens van der Post.
'Famous 20th century Afrikaner author of many books, farmer, war hero,
political adviser to British heads of state, educator, journalist,
humanitarian, philosopher, explorer, and conservationist ... '
Moissaye J. Olgin Internet Archive.
'Moissaye J. Olgin was born in 1878 on shtetl near Kiev. After attending
a traditional Jewish cheder he entered the University of Kiev, where he
began his career as a revolutionary. In 1901 he was elected chairman of
the Student's Central Committee, while also being a member of the
revolutionary group, Freiheit. In April 1903 the Czarist regime ordered
his arrest for his role in the formation of Jewish self-defense groups,
at which point he moved to Vilna, Poland.'
Unveiling of Britain.
Maps of Britain in the British Library.
'This selection of maps and views traces the growing awareness of the
form of British Isles and their place in the wider world during the
years between 800 and 1600. '
Portraits from Limbuwan. Images
of a village in
Nepal from the 1980s and 1990s.
'Here you will find a collection of images I have taken in and around
a village known as Akaashe ('The Sky'). Akaashe is located in eastern
Nepal and is part of Limbuwan (home of the Limbus). Limbus are one of
the many ethnic groups in Nepal. '
Harvard Virtual Tour.
The great American university.
'Like the crisscrossing paths of its famous Yard, Harvard touches
history at virtually every turn. One of the most rewarding routes
through Harvard's past is also one of the easiest: touring its
buildings and open spaces, which echo to tales as old as Colonial
America. This Harvard Virtual Tour will guide you around and about
Harvard Yard, offering grand outdoor panoramas as well as glimpses
behind doors normally closed to public view.'
and tourism, and personal
travelogues, from around the world.
Creative Arts Therapies
Program St. Martin de Porres, Brooklyn. Outsider art.
'Two years ago I wrote a proposal to a non-profit organization to open
an Open Art Studio on-sight at one of their shelters. After nine
months of deliberations with the organization my proposal was accepted
and I began what is today a very successful Creative Arts Therapies
Program at a women's shelter in downtown Brooklyn.'
Norman Dog. "America's most beloved
cartoonist" - radical and funny.
'The Encyclopedia Astronautica is the single most comprehensive
reference for the history of spaceflight. It is a proven and reliable
source endorsed by the Encyclopedia Britannica, library associations,
NASA, the world's major newspapers and television networks, Internet
guides, and leading space writers and historians. '
Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill.
'In the spring of 1990 I saw something on San Francisco's Telegraph Hill
that astonished me: wild parrots. I was so curious about their presence
that I kept trying to get closer until finally I had them eating out of
my hand. Thus began this friendship and study. My book The Wild Parrots
of Telegraph Hill documents the friendship; this web site, which in the
past has tried to document both, will now focus on the study. I no
longer feed the parrots every day, and on days that I do feed them, I
limit myself to a single feeding. My situation is stable, and it looks
as though I'll be able to spend the rest of my life following the
parrots' progress ... '
Fairbank Chinese History Library. A modern Chinese history virtual
'The Fairbank Chinese History Virtual Library was founded to facilitate
easy access to sources of
modern Chinese historical information on the internet.'
'Harlem History presents a wealth of archival treasures and scholarship
from Columbia about the history of one of the world's most famous and
The Natalia Sedova Trotsky Internet Archive.
'Russian Revolutionary. Born in Ukraine, studied in Geneva while young.
Met Leon Trotsky in Paris in 1902 and they later married. Worked with
Lenin and Trotsky on the Bolshevik newspaper Iskra. The Trotskys had two
sons together, Lev Sedov and Sergei Sedov. As adults, both sons were
killed by Stalinists because of their relation to L.D. Trotsky.'
Sketches of the Alumni of Dartmouth College by
the Rev. George T. Chapman DD, Class of
'In 1867, the Rev. George T. Chapman, Class of 1804, published his
compilation of biographical sketches for graduates of Dartmouth College.
The volume contains entries for most graduates from the classes of 1771
through 1867, but does not include Dartmouth Medical School alumni, nor
non-graduates of the undergraduate College. In most cases, Chapman was
able to provide birth and death dates and places, parents, education and
career information. '
Portrait of Julien Leclercq and
his Wife, ca. 1898.
'This double portrait of the avant-garde art critic for the Mercure de
France, Julien Leclercq, a close friend of the artist, and his wife, the
Finnish pianist Fannie Flodin, is a fine example of Schuffenecker's
delicate and idealizing images during the symbolist period between 1892
and 1900 in which he struggled "for art and the ideal." '
The CIA and Nazi War Criminals.
'The declassified "SECRET RelGER" two-volume history was compiled by CIA
historian Kevin Ruffner and presented in 1999 by CIA Deputy Director for
Operations Jack Downing to the German intelligence service
(Bundesnachrichtendienst) in remembrance of "the new and close ties"
formed during post-war Germany to mark the fiftieth year of CIA-West
German cooperation. This history was declassified in 2002 as a result of
the work of The Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records
Interagency Working Group (IWG) and contains 97 key documents from
'Earth art (also called "land art") refers to a movement of artists with
wide ranging goals, but all created in nature, employing such materials
as stones, dirt, and leaves. "Earthworks" is the same movement. Most
works are sculptural. Earthworks often refer to phenomena such as the
slow process of erosion or to the movement of planets or stars,
especially the sun. Many earthworks are intended to help us to better
understand nature ... '
Feinstein International Famine Centre.
'The Feinstein International Famine Center was established in 1996 to
improve humanitarian, relief and refugee efforts in times of famine,
war and complex emergencies. '
'He's short, balding, ornery and downright ugly by anyone's standards.
But countless numbers of fans have grown up admiring and identifying
with this unpretentious hero since his introduction to the public in
1929. Celebrating his 75th Anniversary in 2004, "Popeye" remains one
of the most widely recognized and best-loved personalities ever. '
From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in
'From Haven to Home is a Library of Congress exhibition marking 350
years of Jewish life in America. The exhibition features more than two
hundred treasures of American Judaica from the collections of the
Library of Congress, augmented by a selection of important loans from
other cooperating cultural institutions. '
The American Colony in Jerusalem.
'This exhibition offers a glimpse into the remarkable
history and work of the American Colony, a Christian
utopian society that formed in Jerusalem in 1881. The
photographs, documents, and artifacts exhibited are
drawn from a generous gift to the Library of Congress
from Mrs. Valentine Vester. This archival treasure, which
she has preserved for more than fifty years, provides a
unique record of the history of Jerusalem and the Middle
East in the early decades of the twentieth century. '
The Grain Elevators - Buffalo's Lost Industry.
'They serve as a monument to a bygone era; monolithic structures
standing on water's edge waiting for lake and canal freighters that will
no longer come. Today all except a few of these enormous buildings are
abandoned and no longer serve the industry for which they were designed.
As they stand in their decrepit state they remain a mystery to those who
view them. Few venture close to investigate their design and operation.
At one time in Buffalo's history, the grain elevators dominated the
skyline of the waterfront and served as a symbol of Buffalo's industrial
importance as the largest supplier of grain in the world. '
Esther Before Ahasuerus.
' Artemisia Gentileschi was an artist of remarkable qualities: the first
woman who managed to live exclusively by her brush and who refused to be
bound by the conventions usually imposed on female artists. In a time
when still-life painting and portraiture were the genres deemed proper
for a woman, Artemisia created impressive history paintings. The
Metropolitan Museum's Esther before Ahasuerus is one such painting ... '
Bell System Memorial.
'A website created as a memorial to the people, history, technology and
the "Spirit of Service" of what was known as the "Bell System" prior to
'This non-commercial website was created to help keep the memories of
the Bell System alive and to pay tribute to those that made it the
greatest telecommunications system on earth. This website also provides
some technical and corporate historical information relating to Bell
Labs, Western Electric, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), and the
Regional Bell Operating Companies. There is also some limited technical
information on Western Electric telephones for telephone collectors,
hobbyists, students, and others for non-commercial use ... '
Petersen Patent Model Museum.
'The Rothschild Petersen Patent Model Museum is the largest privately-
owned collection of United States patent models in the world. Containing
nearly 4,000 patent models and related documents, the collection spans
America's Industrial Revolution. Owner Alan Rothschild eventually hopes
to establish a national Patent Model Museum, open to the public. Step
inside to discover the wonders of American ingenuity! '
Robots in the Victorian Era.
'Read illustrated accounts of the world's first robot, the Steam Man,
created in 1865! Subsequent automatons such as the Electric Man and the
Automatic Man are also profiled. The most comprehensive section, with
more than 20 pages, concerns the mechanical man known as Boilerplate--
described as "charming" by U.S. News and World Report and declared
"cool" by NASA!'
'The Brecks is the hidden heart of East Anglia. It's a colourful world
of sandy soil and glowing heather, of ancient history, curious birds and
peaceful villages. There's nowhere else like it.'
Articles on 20th century Chinese history - the 1911
revolution, Sun Yat-Sen, the Japanese occupation,
Disease Vector Risk Assessment Profiles From the Navy. (USA)
'For some reason, the Navy doesn't make these reports available online,
instead requiring that the profiles of specific countries be requested
from them. Utilizing the Freedom of Information Act, frequent Memory
Hole contributor Michael Ravnitzky requested all of them. He received
147 (the Navy's VECTRAP page says that they cover "over two hundred
'The profiles are in the zip file above. They include Afghanistan, Cuba,
France, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Libya, Rwanda, the UK, the former
Soviet Union, and 136 others.'
The Sedlec Ossuary.
'The Sedlec Ossuary (a.k.a. Kostnice) is a small
Christian chapel decorated with human bones. It's
located in Sedlec, which is a suburb in the outskirts
of the Czech town Kutna Hora. In 1996 I visited the
place and fell madly in love with it. '
The 'Analyst' Controversy.
'In 1734, the philosopher George Berkeley published
a pamphlet, The Analyst, which criticised the
foundations of the analysis used in the works of
Newton and others. Many mathematicians published
pamphlets in response, including James Jurin, Jacob
Walton and Benjamin Robins. However the
interpretations of the methods of Newton presented
in the works of Robins and Jurin, and the Analyst
controversy accordingly developed into a dispute
between these two, conducted in the pages of The
Present State of the Republick of Letters. '
Murals from Bhutan.
'Wall paintings of historical figures, archetypal
deities and religious protectors from the temples of
the Drukpa Kagyu Buddhist Tradition, the state religion
of the Kingdom of Bhutan.'
'This website presents interviews with over 300 people who live in
mountain and highland regions round the world. Their testimonies offer a
personal perspective on change and development.'
Mathematicians of the 17th and 18th Centuries.
'Available here are accounts of the lives and works of seventeenth and
eighteenth century mathematicians (and some other scientists), adapted
from A Short Account of the History of Mathematics by W. W. Rouse Ball
(4th Edition, 1908) ... '
'Recoka, the Red de Comunidades Kichwas de Amazonía, is a community of
indigenous villages in the Napo region, located in the amazonian rain
forest of Ecuador. The main goal is to develop alternative projects to
improve the quality of life, as well as to improve the education system
by scholarships, for giving the possibility to the youth to accept more
responsibility for their villages ... '
John Milton and 17th Century Culture.
'John Milton (1608-1674) was not only among the most influential of
British poets. He was the most directly involved of any British poet in
the centres of political power and in the great historical events of the
English Revolution. He was also arguably the most learned, indeed the
most bookish, of the great British poets, even in a learned and bookish
of the Colorado Plateau.
'Voices of the Colorado Plateau is an online multimedia museum
collection featuring oral history recordings and historic photographs
that document life on the Colorado Plateau. The collection is divided
into three sections: People, Places, and Topics. The site is designed to
increase viewer's understanding and appreciation of oral history, the
Colorado Plateau and the American west. These first person accounts make
history come alive in an immediate way that is powerful and compelling.
The Last Expression.
Art and Auschwitz.
'The Last ExpressionMieczyslaw Koscielniak, At the Easel, 1944,
Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecimproject is a forum to explore
the roles, functions, meanings and making
of art in the Nazi concentration camps of World War II, focusing on the
notorious site of Auschwitz-Birkenau. '
Gedun Choephel Artists' Guild.
Contemporary Tibetan art.
'Usually groups are formed through someone's initiative. However, this
particular Gedun Choephel Artists' Guild came together naturally through
shared experiences and common interests. We were all born in the
turbulent 1960s and 70s. We lived through the rationing period of
Chairman Mao, and remember his passing away. We also have experienced
the radical modernizing changes brought about by Deng Xiao Ping
throughout China. '
'Like other young people, we like to keep up with the times and trends,
but we also respect and value the traditional aspects of our unique
Days of Infamy: December 7 and 9/11.
'Within the living memory of Americans are two deadly surprise attacks
against the United States: Japan's assault on Pearl Harbor on December
7, 1941, and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Both times,
the Library of Congress sent people out to record the voices of ordinary
Americans as they reacted to a changed world. '
Amy Lowell. American poet.
'Amy Lowell didn't become a poet until she was years into her adulthood;
then, when she died early, her poetry (and life) were nearly forgotten -
- until gender studies as a discipline began to look at women like
Lowell as illustrative of an earlier lesbianism. She lived her later
years in a "Boston marriage" and wrote erotic love poems addressed to a
'T. S. Eliot called her the "demon saleswoman of poetry." Of herself,
she said, "God made me a businesswoman and I made myself a poet." '