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10th November

The Fatal Salient. WW1 letters and paintings by Harold Sandys Williamson.
'Following the outbreak of war, he attempted to enlist in the army, but was turned down on health grounds. He was finally accepted into the King's Royal Rifle Corps in January 1916 as a rifleman, and began his training at Winchester the following day. A week later he was posted to the 15th (Reserve) Battalion at South Down Camp, Sussex, where he stayed until he was sent to France at the beginning of August as part of the draft for the 8th Battalion (41st Brigade, 14th Division). By now a Lance Corporal, and hoping for a commission, he joined the battalion at Heucourt on the Somme in late August 1916. On the morning of 15 September he was wounded by a grenade fragment while taking part in an attack during the Battle of Delville Wood.'

Greek Popular Religion, 1940.
'This is a short survey of Greek religious practice and beliefs from ground level. The texts of Homer, Hesiod, and the Greek dramatists and philosophers, who defined Greek beliefs, have long been known and understood. There is a conventional view of Greek mythology which is taught by rote to school children (at least until recently), which relies on a neat set of 'myths and legends.' It was not until the pioneering efforts of Jane Harrison and other scholars in the 19th century that a picture emerged of what actually constituted Greek religion, and how it evolved. This monograph covers what was known by the middle of the 20th century. It gives a fascinating look at the very earthy popular side of Greek religion, with its noisy (and often messy) festivals, initiations, secret societies, oracles, and a practical but very superstitious belief system. He also discusses how some of these beliefs and festivals, under the guise of Christianity, have persisted to this day. '

Louisiana State Museum Jazz Collection.
'The Louisiana State Museum Digital Library Jazz collection is composed of photographs, audio recordings and musical instruments from the collections of the Louisiana State Museum. Primarily dealing with traditional New Orleans jazz, the collections focus on photographs (including all of the Museum's images of Louis Armstrong) and audio recordings of musicians and bands that were primarily active in New Orleans, although many toured throughout the country and the world. The musical instruments span the makeup of a traditional New Orleans jazz band and include many examples from well-known musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Sidney Bechet, Warren "Baby" Dodds, Bix Beiderbecke and others. '

Topics on Mahabharat.
'Mahabharata (a.k.a. Mahabharat) is a great story of sibling rivalry, of complex interwoven sub-stories, of philosophy, divinity, adventure, bravery, and betrayal. The characters are very well developed and are glorified in great works of Indian art and literature.'

Appreciation of Chinese Calligraphy.

'Long before the giant word Eternity sparkled with splendor as it was emblazoned across the Sydney Harbour Bridge, it was first written by the hand of one man. '
'This one-word message was written over 500,000 times on the footpaths of its suburbs and beyond in beautiful copperplate style. Wherever this word appeared it mystified some and fascinated others. The mystery was, "who wrote it?" '
'When the mystery man was finally discovered the Sydney press nicknamed him Mr Eternity, but his real name was Arthur Stace. '

Personality Test. What type are YOU? Possibly the best personality test ever devised.

Gothic Art.
' "Then arose new architects who after the manner of their barbarous nations erected buildings in that style which we call Gothic (dei Gotthi)." Florentine historiographer Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) was the first to label the architecture of preceding centuries "Gothic," in reference to the Nordic tribes that overran the Roman empire in the sixth century. Vasari implied that this architecture was debased, especially compared to that of his own time, which had revived the forms of classical antiquity. Long since rid of derogatory connotations, the label is now used to characterize an art form based on the pointed arch, which emerged around Paris in the middle of the twelfth century, was practiced throughout Europe, and lingered in some regions well into the sixteenth century.'

The Illustrations to 'Our Mutual Friend'. Illustrated Dickens.
'Marcus Stone was the son of Frank Stone, an established artist and long-time friend of Dickens. When Frank Stone died in 1859, leaving the 19-year-old Marcus to make his own way in the world, Dickens took a paternal interest in him and commissioned him to do work for his novels. Marcus Stone illustrated the Library Edition of Great Expectations for Chapman and Hall in 1862, and then went on to replace Phiz as the illustrator for Dickens's next monthly-number serial, Our Mutual Friend...'

Auto Races Represented in the Nathan Lazarnick Collection. Collection of auto race photographs from around 1908.

The Authentic History Centre: Primary Sources from American Popular Culture. Quite an impressive collection of images of racial stereotypes.

The Crumb Museum. The art of Robert (R.) Crumb. Counterculture and comics.

Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism (1908). By E. Nesbit (the same E. Nesbit who wrote children's classics such as 'The Railway Children').

Japan Corner. All things Japanese.

Robert's Rules of Order Revised for Deliberative Assemblies.
'In 1876 General Henry M. Robert set out to bring the rules of the American Congress to members of ordinary societies with the publication of Pocket Manual of Rules of Order. It sold half a million copies before this revision of 1915 and made Robert's name synonymous with the orderly rule of reason in deliberative societies.'

Great American Disasters. An interesting list, unfortunately not quite up to date (Hurricane Katrina is not included).
The site lists many 9-11 victims by name.

Our Land, Our People: Snapshots of New Zealand History.

Skulls Unlimited. 'The World's Leading Supplier of Osteological Specimens' - with online skull gallery.

9th November

In Flanders Fields. Thanks, Bernard.

Frank Reade's Mechanical Marvel: The Electric Man.
'After Frank Reade Jr. assembled his improved version of his father's Steam Man, he turned to producing a mechanical man that would be powered by electricity. The result was the Electric Man, shown above and at right, during a trial run. In 1886, Reade Jr. traveled with this metal giant on a world tour similar to Archibald Campion's journey with Boilerplate...'
History of robots in the Victorian era.

Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods 1889-1963. Extensive history of a Chicago neighbourhood.

Virtual Tour of the United Nations. See the Japanese peace bell, Chagall stained glass, Norman Rockwell mosaic, etc.

Three Wise Men/Biblical Magi.
'In Christian tradition the Magi, also known as the Three Wise Men or Kings from the east, are magi who according to Matthew 2:1 came "from the east to Jerusalem", to worship the Infant Jesus, him "that is born King of the Jews"...'
'... In Catalonia, Melchior (Cat. "Melcior"), light-skinned as usual, dressed in the style of a king of the late Middle Ages (the Gothic Era), is the youngest king, but has a white beard and hair, because Jesus punished him for unnecessariily showing off his strength and youth. He brings the children baubles. Caspar (Cat. "Gaspar"), also light-skinned and similarly dressed, has brown hair. He brings them toys. Balthasar (Cat. "Baltasar") is dark-skinned and dressed as an Arab or Moor. It is his job to leave a lump of coal for children who have been bad.'
The Journey of the Magi. "A cold coming we had of it..."

Falun Gong 'is a controversial Chinese spiritual movement which was introduced in 1992 by Li Hongzhi. Central to Falun Gong are five sets of exercises (four standing, and one sitting) that involve meditation and are said to help in the purification of the mind and the body. Many teachings are similar to those in Buddhism and Taoism - though it adds a conservative morality and several New Age and apocalyptic beliefs. Also known as Falun Dafa, the practice has grown swiftly in popularity around the world...'
Pulitzer-winning articles on the persecution of Falun Gong in China.

Einstein Light: A Brief Illumination of Relativity.

The Biology Project.
'Welcome to The Biology Project, an interactive online resource for learning biology developed at The University of Arizona. The Biology Project is fun, richly illustrated, and tested on 1000s of students. It has been designed for biology students at the college level, but is useful for high school students, medical students, physicians, science writers, and all types of interested people. '
Onion root tips.

The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg, 1862.
'The Barddas of Iolo Morganwg is a collection of writings, largely forged, about ancient Welsh Bardic and Druidic beliefs. Although the author of this work is cited as J. Williams Ab Ithel, he was actually the editor, who pieced it together from manuscripts written by Iolo Morganwg. Iolo Morganwg (1747-1826), itinerant poet and scholar, was a key figure in the Druid revival of the 19th century. He was personally responsible for reviving the Welsh national poetry contest, the Gorsedd. On June 21st, 1792, Midsummer evening, Iolo and a dozen other Welsh poets gathered on Primrose Hill in London and held the first Gorsedd in hundreds of years. Iolo was a Welsh patriot and held revolutionary views; he was a personal friend of Tom Paine, and George Washington subscribed to his first volume of poetry. He is said to have influenced both William Blake's poetry and Robert Grave's White Goddess. He revived the concept that the Welsh explorer Madoc discovered America. This led to an expedition to Mandan territory in the Great Plains, which found no trace of the Welsh, but was one of the inspirations for Thomas Jefferson's Lewis and Clarke expedition...'

Japanese Tea Ceremony.

Indigenous Australia. Languages, culture, festivals, the Dreaming; website by indigenous Australians.

Drug Trade: Therapy, Pharmacy and Commerce in Early-Modern Europe.
'This exhibition presents the fine collection of early drug jars at the Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford. These pharmacy jars, manufactured from the 16th to the 18th century, are presented along with printed herbals from the Museum's library. Together, they are set in the context of the therapeutical practice of the time.'

Creative Americans: Portraits by Carl Van Vechten, 1932-64.
'The Carl Van Vechten Photographs Collection at the Library of Congress consists of 1,395 photographs taken by American photographer Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964) between 1932 and 1964. The bulk of the collection consists of portrait photographs of celebrities, including many figures from the Harlem Renaissance. A much smaller portion of the collection is an assortment of American landscapes. '

The Black Panther Party Research Project.
'This is an academic site designed to provide information for individuals who want to locate primary and secondary sources about the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, the organization co-founded during October 1966 in Oakland, California by Bobby Seale and the late Dr. Huey P. Newton.'
History of the Black Panther Party.

Triceratops. Dinosaur stuff.
'In May, 2001, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History will unveil a new mount of Triceratops. This new skeleton is a product of traditional bone replication by molding and casting, and three- dimensional laser scanning and prototyping that fixes many inaccuracies in the original mount. The posture of this skeleton is also new, arrived at by prototyping an accurate and handleable miniature of the skeleton that scientists analyzed bone by bone. Triceratops is the first digital dinosaur, existing accurately in the computer, and able to be shared with researchers as easily as e-mail. This new approach and new Triceratops will tell us many more things about how this three-horned dinosaur lived and moved over 65 million years ago.'

NYC Photo Gallery.

A Sumi-e Dream Journey.
'SUMI-E a Japanese term meaning "ink painting" was imported from China around the 7th century A.D. by Japanese scholars seeking a cultural exchange.'
'When they returned to Japan, the newly ordained Zen Buddhist priests admired this ink painting and valued it for its artistic discipline. They praised the monochromatic style for its ability to stimulate the illusion of color, the disciplined brush work, and its depth of shading and emotional impact.'

Old Stepney. East London history.
'This website contains details about Stepney which may help family historians add interest to their written family history. '
'It includes name indexes of local people, witnesses to crimes, adventurers, explorers and vestrymen of the 17th and 18th Century many of whom were involved with the East India Company.'

Three Times and Out: A Canadian Boy's Experience in Germany, 1918. World War I tales.
'Then he began his story. Before he had gone far, I had determined to do all I could to get his story into print, for it seemed to me to be a story that should be written. It gives at least a partial answer to the anxious questionings that are in so many hearts. It tells us something of the fate of the brave fellows who have, temporarily, lost their freedom - to make our freedom secure! '

Matt Carmichael: Chicago Rock Photographer and Writer. Rock and roll photography.

7th November

Incarnation Lineage: Panchen Lama. Tibetan art.
'The Panchen Lamas, closely associated with the Dalai Lamas and the monastery of Tashi Lhunpo, are a line of successively re-incarnating teachers in Tibetan Buddhism. The first Panchen Lama, Lobzang Chokyi Gyaltsen, was the tutor of the 5th Dalai Lama and the most important Gelugpa teacher of his time...'

Devotional Books.
'Throughout the Middle Ages, Christian worshipers participated in the communal services of the Church. Increasingly, however, they sought ways to establish a more intimate relationship with God. To address their needs, authors adapted prayers and readings for use in private prayer books. They also developed new genres of inspirational texts such as saints' lives, bestiaries, and visionary tales...'

Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 1935-38. Photographs of New York in the 1930s.

Edward Abbey.
'Meet Edward Paul Abbey, twentieth-century polemicist and desert anarchist, a character of elaborate contradictions and eccentricities whose words either infuriated or delighted his readers.'
'In a career spanning four decades, he wrote passionately in defense of the Southwest and its inhabitants, often mocking the mindless bureaucratic forces hell-bent on destroying it. "Resist much, obey little," from Walt Withman, was this warrior's motto.'
'While he was alive, attempts to label him in conventional terms nearly always fell short because he was neither left-wing nor right-wing, nor was he an outlaw. Abbey was a genuine rebel who simply did not believe in the moderns industrial way of life. He wrote against the grain, always choosing the path of the greatest resistance. Beginning in the 1950s, he depicted the Southwest not as a virgin utopia peopled by rugged individualists, but as a region under siege because of government and corporate greed, its people at risk of being cut off from the primary wellspring of their spiritual strength - the wild places. He's been dead for a while now, but the legend keeps in growing.'
- Epitaph for a Desert Anarchist.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
'On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."'

Revising Himself: Walt Whitman and 'Leaves of Grass'.
'The publication of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass in 1855 was the debut of a masterpiece that shifted the course of American literary history. Refreshing and bold in both theme and style, the book underwent many revisions over Whitman's lifetime, becoming an ever-transforming kaleidoscope of poems. This exhibition traces the different occupations and preparations that led Whitman to become the author of Leaves of Grass, as well as his subsequent evolution as a poet. Over almost forty years Whitman produced multiple editions of Leaves of Grass. By his death in 1892, Leaves was a thick compendium representing Whitman's vision of America over the last half of the nineteenth century.'

A Heavenly Craft: The Woodcut in Early Printed Books.
'A Heavenly Craft: The Woodcut in Early Printed Books is a Library of Congress exhibition that presents for the first time all the woodcut-illustrated books purchased by Lessing J. Rosenwald at the Dyson Perrins sale, now part of the legendary Rosenwald Collection at the Library of Congress. These books were printed within the first century after Gutenberg mastered the art of printing with moveable type. '

Beauty and Darkness: Cambodia in Modern History.
'The Beauty and Darkness project provides information on the recent history of Cambodia, particulary the Khmer Rouge period. This includes materials pertaining to Cambodia, as well as information about Cambodian refugees and immigrants abroad. Articles on the site are categorized within the menus at the top of the page.'

Rube Goldberg.
'Best known for his "INVENTIONs" cartoons, which use a string of outlandish tools, people, plants, and steps to accomplish everyday simple tasks in the most complicated way, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg's drawings point out that people are often overwhelmed by over complicating their lives.'
'Rube Goldberg's "INVENTIONS" continue to inspire the many local and regional RUBE GOLDBERG MACHINE CONTESTS culminating at the "University National Contest", which is held annually at Purdue University. This National Competition (featuring "winners" from local contests at universities and colleges all over the country) garners growing international and domestic network TV, print, and other media coverage. High and middle school science classes and clubs throughout the U.S. are now also holding regional and state-wide RUBE GOLDBERG MACHINE CONTESTS. A "National Contest" for high schools is planned for 2004 to be hosted by the Milwaukee Colleges of Engineering Partnership: Marquette University, Milwaukee School of Engineering, and University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.'

Sorting Algorithms.
'One of the fundamental problems of computer science is ordering a list of items. There's a plethora of solutions to this problem, known as sorting algorithms. Some sorting algorithms are simple and intuitive, such as the bubble sort. Others, such as the quick sort are extremely complicated, but produce lightening-fast results. '
'Below are links to algorithms, analysis, and source code for seven of the most common sorting algorithms. '

US Senate Oral History.
'Over the past quarter century, the Senate Historical Office has interviewed Senate officers, parliamentarians, clerks, police officers, chiefs of staff, reporters, photographers, Senate pages, and senators. These interviews cover the breadth of the 20th century and now the 21st century, and include a diverse group of personalities who witnessed events first-hand. Darrell St. Claire, Assistant Secretary of the Senate, offered reminiscences of senators from Huey Long to Lyndon Johnson. Ruth Young Watt, Chief Clerk to the Subcommittee on Investigations under Joseph McCarthy and "Scoop" Jackson, candidly described fellow staffers Roy Cohn and Robert Kennedy, and reminisced about witnesses such as Howard Hughes and Jimmy Hoffa. Jesse Nichols, clerk and librarian for the Finance Committee from 1937 to 1971, was the first African-American hired on the Senate's clerical staff. He spoke of the long, slow transition from a segregated city to an integrated workplace...'

The Roman Roads in the Mediterranean.
'The network, "Roman Roads in the Mediterranean", is happy to welcome you to its Internet site: '
'This site is the outcome of a partnership between fifteen regions of Europe, France, Italy, Spain and Greece which began in 1998, within the framework of THE EUROPEAN INTERREG MEDOCC PROJECT.'
'We hope that this site, with its in-depth contents and extensive links, will be an effective information tool (discovery of the related history, geography and tourism, a photographic library, events and practical information about visiting the sites, etc.) for netsurfers in Europe and the rest of the world who want to learn more about Roman roads in the Mediterranean and gain insight into the countries who are partners in this project. '

Historical Devon Gazzetteer. 'This gazetteer covers communities down to the parish level in Devon and provides references to a range of information. It is based on a card index compiled by staff in the Westcountry Studies Library and it is hoped to extend the information included in the future.'
Each village page has an 1827 map (e.g. Bovey Tracey - a treasure trove.

The Vikings.
'Welcome to the companion Web site to "The Vikings," a two-hour NOVA program originally broadcast on May 9, 2000. The program examines a new, less barbarian image of the Norsemen based on recent archeological investigations...'

Chickasaw Historical Research Page. Documents relating to the Native American Chickasaw tribe. Includes Chickasaw letters from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Scottish Handwriting.
'Welcome to Scottish, the website offering online tuition in palaeography for historians, genealogists and other researchers who have problems reading manuscript historical records written in Scotland in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The emphasis of the website is on practical help to improve the palaeographical skills, rather than on the academic study of Scottish handwriting. '

Friendship. A global, historical overview.
"The intense emotional and affective relationships described in the past as "non-sexual" cannot be said to exist today: modern heterosexual men can be buddies, but unless drunk they cannot touch each other, or regularly sleep together. They cannot affirm that an emotional affective relationship with another man is the centrally important relationship in their lives. It is not going too far, is it, to claim that friendship - if used to translate Greek philia or Latin amicita - hardly exists among heterosexual men in modern Western society. " - Paul Halsall.
'... According to Oleg Kharkhordin in a paper on the politics of friendship, in Soviet society, friendships were "a suspect value for the Stalinist regime" in that they presented a stronger allegiance that could stand in possible opposition to allegiance to the Communist party. "By definition, a friend was an individual who would not let you down even under direct menace to him- or herself; a person to whom one could securely entrust one's controversial thoughts since he or she would never betray them, even under pressure. Friendship thus in a sense became an ultimate value produced in resistance struggles in the Soviet Union."

Kenneth Williams - The Complete and Utter Fantabulosa Website. 'Celebrating the life & career of actor, comedian, author and raconteur Kenneth Williams' He of 'Carry On' fame. Oh, I say.
"When the atheist says, 'What if life's pointless, what if it's all a joke?' It has to be answered by the comedian, 'Well, if it is a joke, let's make it a good one...'"

The Book of Ratings. D&D magical artifacts, items from the Democratic National Convention, origami, angelic orders, web fads, 'old trading cards I bought at a shop in San Francisco', etc. etc. etc...

Witold Lutoslawski 'was one of the major European composers of the 20th century. He was possibly the most significant Polish composer since Chopin, and was the pre-eminent musician of his country during the last three decades of the century. During his lifetime he earned a large number of international awards and prizes, including the Order of the White Eagle, which is Poland's highest honor...'

5th November

Race & Place - An African American Community in the Jim Crow South: Charlottesville, VA.
'*Race and Place* is an archive about the racial segregation laws, or the 'Jim Crow' laws from the late 1880s until the mid-twentieth century. The focus of the collection is the town of Charlottesville in Virginia. The Jim Crow laws segregated African-Americans from white Americans in public places such as schools, and school buses. The archive contains photos, letters, two regional censuses and a flash map of the town of Charlottesville. The Jim Crow laws were not overturned until the important Brown versus Board of Education court ruling in 1954 (but not totally eliminated until the Civil Rights Act of the 1964)...'

Spalding Base Ball Guides 1889-1939.
'*Spalding Base Ball Guides, 1889-1939* comprises a historic selection of *Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide* and the *Official Indoor Base Ball Guide*. The collection reproduces 35 of the guides, which were published by the Spalding Athletic Company in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. *Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide* was perhaps the premier publication of its day for the game of baseball. It featured editorials from baseball writers on the state of the game, statistics, photographs, and analysis of the previous season for all the Major League teams and for many of the so-called minor leagues across the nation. The 15 *Spalding's Official Base Ball Guides*included in this online collection were published between 1889 and 1939. The *Official Indoor Baseball Guide* concerns a game unfamiliar to most contemporary baseball fans because its demise occurred almost beyond living memory. These guides, too, offer rules and "how-to's" of the game, information on the game's founding fathers, photographic illustrations of teams and players from across the land, and game statistics. The 20 *Official Indoor Base Ball Guides* included in this collection were published between 1903 and 1926. '

A Masterpiece Reconstructed: The Hours of Louis XII.
'The Hours of Louis XII was one of the greatest French manuscripts of its time. A private prayer book, it was painted in 1498/99 by Jean Bourdichon for the French king Louis XII during a period when the royal court in France was a key center of European art and culture. The manuscript's dramatic miniatures painted by Jean Bourdichon, a powerful court artist, are startling in their originality...'

Ryoanji Temple in Kyoto, Japan.
' "*What's so special about the garden at Ryoanji?*" I asked him, naming the famous rock and sand garden in Kyoto's most brochured and pamphleted Zen temple.'
' "*The spaces between the rocks*," he replied, with his mouth full of toothpaste. '
Kyoto photo gallery.

Beethoven's Letters.

African National Congress 90th Anniversary 1912-2002.
'Over nine decades the ANC has forged and led a powerful national liberation movement which has united millions of South Africans in a hard-fought struggle for freedom. Through years of hardship, amid numerous setbacks, but thanks to the sacrifices of countless patriots, the people of South Africa - led by the ANC - have together defeated the forces of racial oppression and ushered in a new era of peace, democracy and reconstruction...'

The Forgetting: A Portrait of Alzheimer's.
'*The Forgetting: A Portrait of Alzheimer's* is a two-hour special aimed at helping people better understand and cope with the fearsome disease of Alzheimer's. The cornerstone of the project is a 90-minute documentary based on David Shenk's best-selling book *The Forgetting*. Like Shenk's book, the documentary is a dramatic, compassionate, all-encompassing look at Alzheimer's that weaves together the history and biology of the disease, the intense real-world experiences of Alzheimer's patients and caregivers, and the race to find a cure. '

Art in the US Senate.
'The United States Senate maintains a collection of over 2,000 pieces of art and historical furniture. The *Office of the Senate Curator *serves as staff to the U.S. Senate Commission on Art [formerly the U.S. Senate Commission on Art and Antiquities], established in 1968 to accept, place, and preserve works of art, exhibits, and historical objects in the Senate wing of the Capitol and in the Senate Office Buildings.'
Vice-Presidential busts.
Political cartoons of Thomas Nast.
Senate snuff boxes.

Incarnation Lineage: Gyalwa Karmapa. Tibetan art.
The Karmapas are a line of successive teachers aknowledged as the first lineage of reincarnating lamas in Tibetan Buddhism. The main seat of the Karmapa is Tsurpu Monastery, north-west of Lhasa, and the specific tradition is known as the Kamtsang Kagyu (Karma Kagyu). *Rangjung Dorje *(3rd) recognized himself as the rebirth of Dusum Kyenpa and postumously named Dusum Kyenpa and Karma Pakshi as the 1st and 2nd Karmapas. The fifth Karmapa *Dezhin Shegpa *(1384-1415) was presented a gift of a black hat by the Chinese emperor Yungle. This hat has become the principal identifying characteristic and iconographic attribute in the depictions of the Karmapas...'

The Louise Michel Internet Archive. French anarchist, veteran of the Paris Commune, who had a truly interesting life.
'Born on May 29, 1830, in an austere castle called Vroncourt (Haute-Marne) where her mother, Marianne Michel, was a maidservant. Her father was reputed to have been Laurent Demahis, the owner's son, but her father may have been the owner himself, Etienne-Charles Demahis. Anyway, her grandparents raised her as a Demahis, and she received a liberal education from them. Her grandfather had her read Voltaire, Rousseau, and the *encyclopedists*, and her grandmother taught her to sing and play piano. Louise Michel's *Mémoirs*describe her early years as idyllic. In 1850, following her grandparents' and father's deaths, her stepmother drove her from the castle....'

Homecoming... Sometimes I Am Haunted by Red Dirt and Clay. 'Homecoming is the story of African-American land loss and a chronicle of black farmers from the Civil War to the present.'

The Secret Life of the Brain.
'THE SECRET LIFE OF THE BRAIN, a David Grubin Production, reveals the fascinating processes involved in brain development across a lifetime. The five-part series, which will premiere nationally on PBS in winter 2002, informs viewers of exciting new information in the brain sciences, introduces the foremost researchers in the field, and utilizes dynamic visual imagery and compelling human stories to help a general audience understand otherwise difficult scientific concepts...'

The Making of Furniture.
'Throughout the 1700s in France, the making of furniture was an elaborate process involving a variety of craftsmen, from the cabinetmaker to the bronze founder to the finisher. The environment of these Parisian artisans, their training, neighborhoods, design sources, and patrons all combined to influence the final products. Much of the veneered furniture in the Getty's collection was the result of this collaboration.'

AllShakespeare. 'Our Shakespeare section contains thousands of pages of content on the life and work of the world's greatest author, including eNotes to more than 20 titles.'
Shakespeare pictures.

The Maximilien Rubel Internet Archive. 'French sociologist, Marxist humanist and with T.B. Bottomore, a prolific publisher and translator.'

4th November

The Essence of Line: French Drawings from Ingres to Degas.
'Welcome to this database of nineteenth-century French drawings. From revealing preparatory sketches to exquisite finished watercolors, more than 900 works by artists such as Eugéne Delacroix, Honoré Daumier, Paul Cézanne, and Edgar Degas illuminate the range of French art over the course of a century of innovation.'

Monstrous Flaws & Character Flaws. 'For centuries great graphic artists have created enduring images that demonstrate the power of art as a vehicle for social and political commentary. Caricatures and cartoons are among the most lasting and effective of these images. These drawings, often depicting principal events and figures of the day, become in the hands of a master at once topical and timeless, unique and universal. Usually created under short deadlines for reproduction in a commercial format such as a newspaper or magazine, cartoons and caricatures reflect the artists' attempts to enlighten, amuse, provoke, or persuade their readers. '

Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou.
'Vodou is Haiti's mirror. Its arts and rituals reflect the difficult, brilliant history of seven million people, whose ancestors were brought from Africa to the Caribbean in bondage. In 1791 these Africans began the only successful national slave revolt in history. In 1804 they succeeded in creating the world's first Black republic: the only one in this hemisphere where all the citizens were free. Their success inspired admiration, fear and scorn in the wider world. Cut off from Euro-American support, Haitians managed to created their own dynamic "Creole" society-one rooted in Africa but responsive to all that was encountered in their new island home.'

Woodblock Prints by Goyo. Japanese prints.
'Goyo Hashiguchi was born in Kagoshima prefecture in 1880. He moved to Tokyo and became a student of famous Japanese painter Gaho Hashimoto. Afterward, he entered the Department of Western Art in Tokyo School of Fine Arts, and graduated in 1905. He was deeply interested in woodblock prints when he was a student. He wrote numerous articles for art publications, compiled a monumental 12 volume work of representative Japanese prints, and supervised the execution of perhaps the finest reproductions ever made of original masterpieces by Hiroshige, Utamaro, etc. He was a pioneer in scientific research and study of old prints and much of his work is accepted to this day. '

Bound for Glory: America in Colour 1939-43.
'Bound for Glory: America in Color is the first major exhibition of the little known color images taken by photographers of the Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information. These vivid scenes and portraits capture the effects of the Depression on America's rural and small town populations, the nation's subsequent economic recovery and industrial growth, and the country's great mobilization for World War II.'

Ansel Adams.
'From the day that a 14-year-old Ansel Adams first saw the transcendent beauty of the Yosemite Valley, his life was, in his words, "colored and modulated by the great earth-gesture of the Sierra." Few American photographers have reached a wider audience than Adams, and none has had more impact on how Americans grasp the majesty of their continent.'

'Kuchi-e are woodblock-printed frontispiece illustrations produced for publication in Japanese novels and literary magazines at the turn-of-the-century. Many of the leading woodblock artists of the Meiji Period worked in this genre. The artists included Mizuno Toshikata, Ogata Gekko, Kajita Hanko, and the young illustrator, Kaburagi Kiyokata...'

City of Prague. Interactive guide, in Czech and English. Includes history and a virtual tour.

Open Source Culture.
'Open source culture (OSC) is a term that derives from open source software and the open source movement. Open source software is software with its source code made freely available; end-users have various degrees of rights to modify and redistribute the software, as well as the right to use the software for commercial purposes. "Open source" as applied to culture defines a culture in which fixations are made generally available. Participants in such a culture are able to modify those products and redistribute them back into the community...'
History of Open Source. 'The prehistory of the Open Source Initiative includes the entire history of Unix, Internet free software, and the hacker culture.'

Disused Stations on London's Underground. Now at a new home.

Reflections: Russian Photographs 1992-2002.
'On March 6, 1992, some three months after the collapse of the Soviet Union, a handful of enthusiastic young Westerners living in Moscow began publishing the first English-language daily newspaper ever to be printed in Russia, the Moscow Times. The photographs in this exhibition are part of a larger group of pictures that have been generously donated to the Library of Congress by the Moscow Times.'

Science and Photography Through the Microscope.

Andy Warhol - Warholstars. Andy Warhol and his circle, his 'stars'.
Brigid Berlin. 'Brigid was one of the few superstars who remained a regular friend of Andy Warhol until his death. She became a permanent employee at the Factory in 1975, working at the front desk and transcribing interviews. (I11). She is the subject of the current documentary, Pie in the Sky - so named because of her obsession with key lime pie and food in general...'
(Some of the pages on this site are not safe for work viewing).

Jacqueline Kennedy Travels Abroad. Photo exhibit.

The Truman Chryslers. Harry S. Truman's cars.

The Legends of Christmas.

Interactive Irish Lessons.

John F. Kennedy, Man of the Sea.
"I really don't know why it is that all of us are so committed to the sea, except I think it is because in addition to the fact that the sea changes and the light changes, and ships change, it is because we all came from the sea. And it is an interesting biological fact that all of us have, in our veins the exact same percentage of salt in our blood that exists in the ocean, and, therefore, we have salt in our blood, in our sweat, in our tears. We are tied to the ocean. And when we go back to the sea, whether it is to sail or to watch it we are going back from whence we came."

Cuisine. A global history.

Adolfo Perez Esquivel. Nobel peace laureate 1980.
'Adolfo Pérez Esquivel was born in Buenos Aires in 1931. After training as an architect and sculptor he was appointed Professor of Architecture. In 1974 he relinquished his teaching post in order to devote all his time and energy to the work of co-ordinating the activities of the various non-violent elements in Latin America. It was at a conference in Montevideo in 1968 that the decision was made to set up a joint organisation covering all non-violent elements throughout Latin America...'

Communist Party of the USA History Archive.

An Image Bank for Everyday Revolutionary Life. The Mexican muralist Siqueiros. Thanks, Paul.

SikhNet. All about Sikhs and Sikhism.
'Sikhism, the youngest of the world religions, is barely five hundred years old. Its founder, Guru Nanak, was born in 1469. Guru Nanak spread a simple message of "Ek Ong Kar": we are all one, created by the One Creator of all Creation. This was at a time when India was being torn apart by castes, sectarianism, religious factions, and fanaticism. He aligned with no religion, and respected all religions. He expressed the reality that there is one God and many paths, and the Name of God is Truth, "Sat Nam"...'

Yale University School of Medicine Library Digital Collections.

World Universities' Ranking on the Web.

3rd November

Visit to the Sistine Chapel.
"This work has been and truly is a beacon of our art, and it has brought such benefit and enlightenment to the art of painting that it was sufficient to illuminate a world which for so many hundreds of years had remained in the state of darkness. And, to tell the truth, anyone who is a painter no longer needs to concern himself about seeing innovations and inventions, new ways of painting poses, clothing on figures, and various awe-inspiring details, for Michelangelo gave to this work all the perfection that can be given to such details." - Vasari.

Ukiyoe Woodblock Prints: "Beauties in a Floating World".
'The "Ukiyoe" style was born in Kyoto and later brought to Edo, where woodblock printing became the predominant medium of "Ukiyoe." During the Edo period, woodblock printing was the only economical method of mass reproduction of drawings. It gained popularity to the point that "Ukiyoe" (also known as "Nishiki-e") was recognized as a specialty item of Edo. The literal translation of "Ukiyo" is "floating world." However the meaning of "Ukiyo" is "of this world," and "Ukiyoe" is a picture depicting "Ukiyo". The Buddhists defined "Ukiyo" as a world filled with agony and suffering. Typically, "Ukiyo" represents everyday life and its surroundings. The main themes in "Ukiyoe" are beautiful women, in particular, geishas and women of the Kabuki district of Edo. Later on, "Ukiyoe" came to include landscapes also. '

The Malcolm X Project. "If you're not ready to die for it, put the word 'freedom' out of your vocabulary." - Malcolm X.

The President's Daily Diary: November 22 1963-January 20 1969. Lyndon Johnson.
'The secretaries outside the Oval Office prepared President Johnson's Daily Diary. Juanita Roberts, the President's personal secretary, assigned the responsibility of preparing the Diary to secretaries in the office. A particular person would "work" the Diary for a scheduled period. As visits and telephone calls occurred, the secretary "working" the Diary would note them; occasionally the secretary missed noting a call or meeting. White House staff who worked closely with the President frequently entered the Oval Office without the visit being noted in the Diary. The secretaries frequently included their own observations in the Diary, and entries may include brief quotes from the President's conversations, narratives describing the President's trips and activities at the LBJ Ranch, anecdotal information, and descriptions of the President's reactions to people and events. '

Early Stuart Libels 'is a web-based edition of early seventeenth-century political poetry from manuscript sources. It brings into the public domain over 350 poems, many of which have never before been published. Though most of the texts are poems of satire and invective, others take the form of anti-libels, responding to libellers with orthodox panegyric. These poems throw new light on literary and political culture in England in the decades from the accession of King James I to the outbreak of the English Civil War.'

African Art. 'We are from Africa, bringing you a taste of Africa, for your joy and for the benefit of artists and craftspeople and their families in Africa.'

Vote: The Machinery of Democracy.
'This exhibition looks at the history of voting methods in the United States, which are as varied as the individual states and their local election districts.'
'Vote: The Machinery of Democracy explores how ballots and voting systems have evolved over the years as a response to political, social, and technological change, transforming the ways in which Americans vote.'

Mongoluls. 'Here you will find information on Mongolian traditions and culture, geography and much more. '

Einstein's Big Idea. E=mc^2.
'Einstein's big idea has been enormously influential, in ways that reach far beyond the purely scientific...'

Chartres: Cathedral of Notre Dame. Thanks, Paul.
'Chartres Cathedral is among the best preserved of the major French cathedrals, with extensive programmes of sculpture and stained glass. It was a major site of pilgrimage in honour of the Virgin Mary, to whom the cathedral is dedicated...'

The Gunpowder Plot: Parliament & Treason 1605. UK Parliament site. Thanks, Paul.
'Assassination, intrigue, persecution, spying, mass murder and finally a plot to blow up Parliament. Before Guy Fawkes was caught red-handed, a chain of events and influences all over Europe led to the Gunpowder Plot in 1605. '
'This website traces the background of the Plot using original material from the period held in the archives of the Houses of Parliament and in other archives, museums and libraries. Archivists and historians look back to the Reformation to find clues about those explosive times.' (Editor's note - Haha!)

The Island History Trust. The Isle of Dogs, in London.
'The Isle of Dogs lies in a loop in the River Thames in the East End of London between Limehouse and Blackwall, opposite Greenwich on the South Bank.'
'It is the site of the old West India and Millwall Docks and of the new Canary Wharf office development.'
'It is not a real island, but takes its name from a tiny island in the river which disappeared long ago. '

Gerald and Betty Ford Historical Photographs 1884-1974.
'The primary focus of the collection is President and Mrs. Ford's lives prior to their move into the White House. Included are photographs covering his childhood, high school and college years, service in World War II, and homes in which he lived. Another facet of the collection is early photographs of Betty Ford's family and her early life. Later photographs cover their wedding, their children, Mr. Ford's work as a member and later Minority Leader of the U.S. House of Representatives, and his Vice Presidency. '

Campaign 2000. US presidential election ephemera.
'This small exhibit in the lobby of the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library-Museum features political pins and other political memorabilia almost exclusively from the Museum's collection. Although the entire exhibit is housed in one case, it features rare and special items from campaigns from Abraham Lincoln to Al Gore and George W. Bush. A selection of some of the items in the exhibit can be viewed below. Enlargements of the photos and descriptions of the items can be viewed by clicking on the thumbnail photos.'

'The festival marks the victory of good over evil...'
'In North India, Diwali celebrates the return of the Rama, King of Ayodhya, his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana to Ayodhya from a war in which he killed the demon king Ravana. It is believed that the people lit oil lamps along the way to light their path in the darkness. In North India, the festival is held on the final day of the Vikram calendar. The following day marks the beginning of the North Indian new year, and is called Annakut. '
'In South India, it commemorates the killing of Narakasura, an evil demon, by Lord Krishna. In South India, Diwali does not coincide with the beginning of a new year as South Indians follow a different calendar, the Shalivahana calendar. '
'In Bhavishyottara and Bramhavaivarta Purana, Diwali is associated with the Daitya king Bali, who is allowed to return to earth once a year. '

California Tribes. Map of Native American tribes in California.

The Mystics of Islam, 1914.
'The title of this book sufficiently explains why it is included in a Series 'exemplifying the adventures and labours of individual seekers or groups of seekers in quest of reality.' Sufism, the religious philosophy of Islam, is described in the oldest extant definition as 'the apprehension of divine realities,' and Mohammedan mystics are fond of calling themselves Ahl al-Haqq, 'the followers of the Real.' {Al-Haqq is the term generally used by Sufis when they refer to God.} In attempting to set forth their central doctrines from this point of view, I shall draw to some extent on materials which I have collected during the last twenty years for a general history of Islamic mysticism--a subject so vast and many-sided that several large volumes would be required to do it anything like justice. '

NaNoWriMo: National Novel Writing Month.

Cambodian Comics. Via Internet Weekly.

Cyber Yugoslavia. Thanks, Bernard.
'This is Cyber Yugoslavia. Home of Cyber Yugoslavs. We lost our country in 1991 and became citizens of Atlantis. Since September 9, 1999 this is our home. We don't have a physical land, but we do have nationality, and we are giving CY citizenships and CY passports. Because this is Atlantis, we are allowing double and triple citizenships. If you feel Yugoslav, you are welcome to apply for CY citizenship, regardless of your current nationality and citizenship, and you will be accepted. Please read our Constitution for the details. If you are just curious, you are welcome to visit us as tourists.'

James Ensor 1860-1949. Belgian artist. Thanks, Bernard.

Katrien Caymax. Art. Thanks, Bernard.

Europe 2020. The European Union and the future of Europe. Thanks, Bernard.

Habsburg Biographies.
'A list of major persons in the Habsburg dynasty with brief biographies and illustrations where possible.'

The Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory.
'Primarily due to its unique location at the boundary between the temperate and subtropical zones, east central Florida's Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system is perhaps the most biologically diverse estuarine system in the continental United States, supporting more than 3,000 species of animals and plants. In 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designated the IRL as an "estuary of national significance" which initiated both local and national efforts to better protect the biodiversity of this rich ecosystem. We invite you to begin your exploration of the Indian River Lagoon and its abundance of species by clicking on one of the links at the left. '

US Army Chemical Corps Documents. 'Reports from the biological, chemical, and radiological warfare program of the US.'

History and Politics of India. From ancient times until post-independence. The 'now' in the narrative is a few years in the past, but it's still worth a read.

History of Propaganda. With an interesting selection of images from various periods.

1st November

Jasper Johns: Selected Works.
From the introduction: 'The life's work of an artist who has had a profound influence on American art was featured in this, the first full retrospective of Jasper Johns's work since 1977. Included in this comprehensive chronological survey were more than 225 paintings, drawings, prints, and sculptures. These works, many from private collections including Johns's own, span more than forty years; a number of the recent images had never before been shown publicly ... Johns's art unites mastery, mystery, simplicity, and contradiction. His methodical working process combines intense deliberation and experimentation, obsessive craft, cycles of revision and repetition, and decisive shifts of direction. Johns also frequently borrows images from other artists, which, ironically, only underscores the originality of his own vision. '

The Tibet Heritage Fund.
'THF's main effort so far has been the study and preservation of the historic city of Lhasa, and a series of interactive maps showcase our documentation and rehabilitation work. A linked database created by our project provides access to information about several hundred historic buildings, their history, present condition and usage. Maps for virtual and real exploration can be downloaded. '
Tibetan architecture.

'A French painter who was a leader in the neo-impressionist movement of the late 19th century, Georges Seurat is the ultimate example of the artist as scientist. He spent his life studying color theories and the effects of different linear structures. His 500 drawings alone establish Seurat as a great master, but he will be remembered for his technique called pointillism, or divisionism, which uses small dots or strokes of contrasting color to create subtle changes in form. '
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.

Hoover Dam.
'It has been compared to the Acropolis of Ancient Greece and the Coliseum of Imperial Rome. Rising 726 feet above the raging waters of the Colorado River, it was called by the man whose name it bears "the greatest engineering work of its character ever attempted by the hand of man." In fact, Hoover Dam reflected the engineering genius and design philosophy of the time. And, in the midst of the Great Depression, it was a symbol of hope for the dispossessed. '

The Last Days of Ernest J. Bellocq. This link may not be safe for work viewing.
'In the early 1900s, Ernest J. Bellocq carried his 8 x 10-inch view camera across Basin Street to photograph the women of New Orleans' notorious district of legalized prostitution, Storyville. His private photographic project remained unknown until after his death, but eventually found its way to international acclaim. Yet virtually no prostitute portraits printed by Bellocq himself have surfaced. He kept his Storyville project secret from everyone except a few of his closest friends, and it remained secret until his glass negative plates were discovered languishing in a junk shop years after his death. '

Classical Images Illustrating the Iliad.
'In this link, you will find images illustrating the ILIAD. Most of these come from vasepainting (usually "Attic," i.e. the area around and including Athens) and date from 550-300 BCE. This is roughly 200 to 500 years after most scholars think the epics were first committed to writing. '

Photos and Pictures of Angkor. Great images. The site is in German. Thanks, Bernard.

Bosh Universe. The art of Jheronimus (or Hieronymus) Bosch. Thanks, Bernard.

Horta Museum. Art nouveau. Thanks, Bernard.
'Art Nouveau aimed to embellish life's setting for both aesthetic and moral reasons. The competition to furnish workers' homes as part of the Liège Exhibition in 1905 demonstrates the wish felt at the time to give the worker a home worth coming back to. Commenting on the interior by Serrurier-Bovy, Jules Destrée evoked an 'impression of freshness, of health, joy and energy', Art Nouveau being seen as an antidote to the temptations of the 'bar'. Ten years earlier, Horta's construction of the Maison du Peuple also had a philanthropic aim: to open up an airy, light-filled space to people living in the slums. The choice of the Workers' Party also had its origins in the quest for a style that would deter the conservative middle classes. '

Bedbug. A mine of information about the world of the cimicidae.
'Bedbugs (or bed bugs) are small nocturnal insects of the family Cimicidae that live by hematophagy, feeding on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded hosts...'

The Jane Austen Centre, Bath.
'Jane Austen is perhaps the best known and best loved of Bath's many famous residents and visitors. She paid two long visits here towards the end of the eighteenth century, and from 1801 to 1806 Bath was her home...'

The Harlem Renaissance.
'The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African-American social thought and culture based in the African-American community forming in Harlem in New York City (USA). This period, extending from roughly 1920 to 1940, was expressed through every cultural medium-visual art, dance, music, theatre, literature, poetry, history and politics. Instead of using direct political means, African-American artists, writers, and musicians employed culture to work for goals of civil rights and equality. Its lasting legacy is that for the first time (and across racial lines), African-American paintings, writings, and jazz became absorbed into mainstream culture. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after an anthology of notable African-American works entitled The New Negro and published by philosopher Alain Locke in 1925.'

Booker T. Washington.
'Booker Taliferro Washington (April 5, 1856 - November 15, 1915) was an African American educator and author. He was born into slavery at the community of Hale's Ford in Franklin County, Virginia. After he and his mother were freed, as a young man he made his way east from West Virginia (where she had obtained work) to obtain schooling at Hampton in eastern Virginia at a school established to train teachers...'

Discovering Egypt. Thanks, Bernard.

Big Bang Theory Is Introduced. Thanks, Bernard.
'Georges LeMaitre (1894-1966) showed that religion and science -- or at least physics -- did not have to be incompatible. LeMaitre, born in Belgium, was a monsignor in the Catholic church....'

Philadelphia Grand Jury Report on Pedophile Priests 'And the Archbishops Who Protect Them'

Deconstruction in Music. Thanks, Bernard.

Tzadik. Experimental music. Thanks, Bernard.

Celtic Artist Courtney Davis. Thanks, Bernard.