Marian Anderson: A Life in Song.
'This exhibition celebrates the artistic development and musical
career of Marian Anderson. Renowned throughout the world for her
extraordinary contralto voice, she is also remembered for her dignity
and grace under pressure. Through the mechanism of recorded sound, we
can continue to enjoy Ms. Anderson's renderings of Lieder and
spirituals . Through the reflected light of photographs, we can glimpse
the preparation and performance of her repertoire. And through the papers
that she left behind, we can investigate and understand how, when, where,
and with whom her life took shape, was enriched, and became enriching not
only for her audiences but also for others in need.'
'Millions of American children struggle in school daily because of serious
learning problems. The causes are often unknown, specific problems can be
difficult to pinpoint, and the long-term effects hard to predict. '
'Research in the field of learning problems took off in the 1960s, when
the first federal funds were earmarked to support children with specific
learning disabilities. Experts know more now than ever before, but the
evolution of that knowledge also parallels the rise of standardized
tests and the current era of high-stakes testing. The tension between
the demand for academic success and the stubborn reality of a problem
makes learning difficulties one of the most contentious topics in an
increasingly competitive and educated society...'
Pueblo Pottery Maine. Galleries and
'We participate in Fair Trade Practices by paying Native American
fair prices for their work and not inflating retail prices to mislead
with an illusion of greater value or savings.'
Thomas Nashe (1567-1601). Renaissance
'Thomas Nashe was born in Lowestoft in 1561, and educated at St John's
College, Cambridge. After graduating in 1586, he became one of the
"University Wits", a circle of writers who came to London and
wrote for the stage and the press. In 1589 his preface to Robert
Greene's Menaphon was published. It attacked contemporary writers
who plagiarized from classical authors, and praised Spenser and Greene.
The Anatomie of Absurditie, also published in 1589, was a satire of
contemporary literature, especially of romances...'
A Brief History of the Rice Computer
'There were two major purposes in designing the Rice machine. The first
was to provide a platform on which members of the Rice community could do
research that would have been impossibly time-consuming without access
to a computer. This was, in fact, the major reason that the project was
started: Zevi Salsburg wanted a machine as powerful as Los Alamos's MANIAC
II to simulate fluid flow. He did not, however, have any desire to move to
Los Alamos, and therefore needed a computer to be built at Rice.'
'The other goal of the machine was to do research into how computers
should be built. In the years following John von Neumann's death, the
Atomic Energy Commission became quite interested in funding computer
research: Salsburg's request came at a time when the AEC's goals could
be better met by funding the development of a new system than by offering
to build a copy of MANIAC II or to buy a stock IBM computer...'
The Sikh Religion, Volume 1, 1909.
'This is one of the first (and still one of the few) comprehensive books
about the Sikh religion in the English language. MacAuliffe had extensive
access to manuscripts of the Sikh sacred writings (the Granth), as well
as support from Sikh scholars and leaders of the time. This volume covers
Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. '
Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst.
'In 1974, a militant, fringe, political group kidnapped teenage
newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst from her Berkeley apartment. In the
months that followed. Hearst, the Symbionese Liberation Army (S.L.A.),
and their constant, paramilitary audio messages dominated headlines
'Using a treasure trove of archival footage and audio material, this
American Experience film follows the bizarre saga from the establishment
of the S.L.A., through the kidnapping, Hearst's conversion to her captors'
cause, and the bank robberies and shootouts that followed.'
'First-ever interviews with two surviving members of the S.L.A. provide
insight into the politically charged times and the reasons why the group
embraced revolutionary rhetoric and a terrorist agenda. As the spectacle
unfolds, and journalists camped outside the Hearst home become consumed by
the story, the film begins to explore questions about the role of the
media and the ethics of broadcast journalism.'
The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire.
'The authors of the present book, who come from a country (Estonia)
which has shared the fate of nations in the Russian and Soviet empires,
endeavour to publicize the plight of the small nations whose very
existence is threatened as a result of recent history. Perhaps it is
not too late to give a supporting hand to them without an attempt at
either ideological brainwashing or economic exploitation. '
Atlas of US Presidential Elections.
'The Atlas is a free internet resource providing results of U.S.
Presidential Elections to the world community. Data is collected
from many official sources and presented here in one convenient
Himalayan Art: Dege Gonchen Monastery.
'In the Dege region of Kham province, Tibet (present day China) the
great monastery of Lundrub Teng (Dege Gonchen) was founded in 1448 by
the first Dege King Tashi Sengge and the famous ascetic Tang Tong
Electronic Biologia Centrali-Americana.
'This digital edition of the important and out-of-print
Biologia Centrali-Americana makes all 58 biological
volumes available. Descriptions of over 50,000 and
images of over 18,000 species of animals and plants
are now accessible as never before...'
Take a Look Through My Eyes.
'This site is about people who are mentally disabled (or mentally
handicapped). We want to show you that these people are very much the
same as you and I. They go to school, have a job, like to watch
television, like to play games or sports. Or hate sports.'
The North Carolina Experience, Beginnings to
'"The North Carolina Experience, Beginnings to 1940" collects a wide
variety of print and manuscript materials that tell the story of the Tar
Heel State as seen through representative histories, descriptive
accounts, institutional reports, fiction, and other writing. It
comprises printed works, images, oral history interviews, and workplace
North Carolinians and the Great War.
'"North Carolinians and the Great War" examines how World War I shaped
the lives of different North Carolinians on the battlefield and on the
home front as well how the state and federal government responded to
war-time demands. The collection focuses on the years of American
involvement in the war between 1917 and 1919, but it also examines the
legacies of the war in the 1920s.'
John Paul Jones.
'John Paul Jones is famous in the United States as the 'Father of the
American Navy'. He was born in poverty and through his skills became a
distinguished naval officer fighting for both the USA and Russia. In
Britain he is rather remembered as a pirate. '
'So what is scambaiting? Well, put simply, you enter into a dialogue
with scammers, simply to waste their precious time and resources.
Whilst you are doing this, you will be helping to keep the scammers
away from real potential victims. '
Acronym Finder. Find out what over
2,441,000 acronyms and abbreviations stand for.
Representative Poetry Online.
'Representative Poetry Online, version 3.0, includes 3,162 English
poems by 500 poets from Caedmon, in the Old English period, to the
work of living poets today. It is based on Representative Poetry,
established by Professor W. J. Alexander of University College,
University of Toronto, in 1912 (one of the first books published
by the University of Toronto Press), and used in the English
Department at the University until the late 1960s...'
'This is the official guide to Greenland. The travel information
provided by the national tourist board. '
Two Days in October.
'Based on the book They Marched Into Sunlight by Pulitzer Prize-winning
journalist David Maraniss, Two Days in October tells the story of two
turbulent days in October 1967 when history turned a corner.'
'In Vietnam, a U.S. battalion unwittingly marched into a Viet Cong trap.
Sixty-one young men were killed and as many wounded. The ambush prompted
some in power to wonder whether the war might be unwinnable.'
'Half a world away, concerned students at the University of Wisconsin
protested the presence of Dow Chemical recruiters on campus. The
demonstration spiraled out of control, marking the first time that
a student protest had turned violent.'
'Told almost entirely by the people who took part in the harrowing
events of those two days -- American soldiers, police officers,
relatives of men killed in battle, protesting students, university
administrators and Viet Cong fighters -- the film offers a window onto
a moment that divided a nation and a war that continues to haunt us.'
Dr. Shao You-Bai Overseas Chinese Documentation and
'Overseas Chinese, numbering 30 million and living in over 136
different countries and areas, are now the most widespread ethnic
group in the world. Overseas Chinese carry their significance not
just in their number and extensive geographic distribution but also in
their varied contributions to the world. With liquid assets of several
trillion dollars, Overseas Chinese play a significant role in the
economic development of the Asia-Pacific region in particular and
the world in general. They have brought Chinese culture to every
corner of the world, thus enriching and diversifying the cultures
of their adopted countries. Their increasing political consciousness
and participation is visible in local and national affairs of the
countries where they reside...'
World War II Resources.
'Primary source materials on the Web.
Original documents regarding all aspects of the war.'
'The Library of Congress has extensive and varied resources related to the
campaign for woman suffrage in the United States. This selection of 38
pictures includes portraits of many individuals who have been frequently
requested from the holdings of the Prints and Photographs Division and the
Manuscript Division. Also featured are photographs of suffrage parades,
picketing suffragists, and an anti-suffrage display, as well as cartoons
commenting on the movement--all evoking the visible and visual way in
which the debate over women's suffrage was carried out. This online
illustrated reference aid is part of the "By Popular Demand" series. It is
a pictorial partner for the text documents in
"'Votes for Women:' Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage
Collection, 1848-1920." '
'Old Shanghai was a very special time and place. The city was run by
foreigners but was not a colony, most residents were Chinese but it was
not ruled by China. It was the greatest city of Asia, completely eclipsing
Hong Kong and Tokyo. It was one of the most cosmopolitan places that ever
existed, full of growth and speculation, of rogues and adventurers, of
color and life, and of poverty and death.'
'Old Shanghai was the worst and the best of everything. It was the "Whore
of Asia" and also the "Paris of the East". It was a "paradise for
adventurers". Over the decades, it was a haven to millions of people, both
Chinese and non-Chinese, who sought refuge there from the wars and the
poverty that surrounded it. '
Stories about the Livonian people, who reside within Latvia.
'Lizete ?vanenberga, 85 years old, recorded at Luznja, Kolka peninsula, in
1987. She spoke in the Tamian dialect of Latvian. There is a simple
explanation that the Tamian dialect was created by Livonians when they use
Livonian Grammar rules in Latvian speech. In Lizete's Lifestory there are
memories about an Estonian professor Loorits, whom she calls Baltgalvîtis
('Whiteheaded man', because of his white hair), carefully listening and
learning her mother's Livonian language and folk-tales. Like roe in the
wood's darkness - so beautiful and clueless - this folkteller Oskar
Loorits wrote poetically about Lizete's mother. The call of the wild and
mythological outlook echoes throughout Lizete's mother. The call of the
wild and mythological outlook echoes throughout Lizete's life story.'
The Papers of Jefferson
'Best known as president of the Confederacy during the American Civil War,
Jefferson Davis was also a Mexican War hero, served in the House of
Representatives and the Senate, and was secretary of war under Franklin
Pierce. After the Civil War he became a symbol of the Lost Cause. '
'The Papers of Jefferson Davis, a documentary editing project based at
Rice University in Houston, Texas, is publishing a multi-volume edition of
his letters and speeches, several of which can be found on this web site.
The site also provides extensive information on Davis and his family and
Joan Miro 1893-1983.
'Joan Miró Ferra was born on April 20, 1893 in Barcelona, into the family
of a goldsmith and watchmaker. Miró started drawing classes at the age of
seven, but later yielding to his parents? insistence to receive a decent
profession took business classes and became a book-keeper. Simultaneously,
in 1907-10 Joan Miró studied art in the academy La Escuela de la Lonja in
Barcelona in the class of the landscapist Modesto Urgell Inglada and
professor of decorative and applied arts José Pasco Merisa. In 1912-15, he
studied in the private academy of Francese D?A. Galí Fabra. In 1918,
together with some like-minded friends Miró founded ?Agrupació Courbet?, a
group of young artists who opposed themselves to conservative traditions
in Catalan art. In his works of 1913-17 the most important are the
influences of Cézanne and the Fauvists: objects are close to each other
and shine with bright and broken colors; striped patterns make up a kind
of decorative ornament... '
Alfred E. Neuman Quotes.
'Alfred E. Neuman. He's the freaky little kid that has appeared on
almost every MAD cover, and also has had a "thought provoking" quote
in just about every issue. Some of his quotes sound so intelligent that
they might lead you to believe that he's not a complete idiot. But he
is. Anyway, here are the quotes since issue #335!'
The XII Tai Situpa.
'The lineage of the Tai Situpas is traced to one of the main disciples
of the Gotama Buddha, the Bodhisattva Maitreya. Since that time there
have been a successive chain of incarnations, whose achievements are
recorded in Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan annals. A direct lineage that
continues to the present day. '
'If you must know, the current actions of an unlikely cipher clerk in
an unlikely North American city are having the effect of ending the
world. Let it be said, however, that the fault lies not with him,
but with the Creator of said world. It was He who, in the beginning,
allowed certain errors to creep into the source code, errors which
have compounded and are now manifesting themselves in our clerk's
apocalyptic activities. The attached documents will show that the
clerk is merely following this Creator's program...'
Public Lettering. A walk in central London.
'This site is based on a walk by Phil Baines for his graphic design
students which was then written up for the 1997 ATypI conference.
The text has been updated and expanded to include other examples.
This walk concentrates on larger examples of public lettering and
doesn't mention incidentals - stop-cocks, manholes, dates on buildings,
builders marks, &c - of which there is much en route. Much of the
pleasure of this kind of walk, is finding things yourself. '
Newspaper Pictorials: World War I Rotogravures.
Focuses on US newspapers.
'The images in this collection track American sentiment about the war in
Europe, week by week, before and after the United States became
involved. Events of the war are detailed alongside society news and
advertisements touting products of the day, creating a pictorial record
of both the war effort and life at home. The collection includes an
illustrated history of World War I selected from newspaper rotogravure
sections that graphically documents the people, places, and events
important to the war.'
Tibetan Folk Tales, 1925.
'It is found among the old, old histories of the Tibetans that a female
demon living among the mountains in Northern India mated with a monkey
from the forests of Tibet, and from this union sprang the Tibetan race
of people. The greater part of their literature is of a sacred nature,
telling of their creation, of the formation of the world, of Buddha and
his miraculous birth and death, of his reincarnations and the revisions
of his teachings.'
Folk-lore of the Isle of Man, 1891.
'The wonders of the Isle of Man, according to Nennius, are "a strand
without a sea . . . . a ford which is far from the sea, and which fills
when the tide flows, and decreases when the tide ebbs"; and "a stone
which moves at night in Glen Cinden, and though it should be cast into
the sea, yet at morning's dawn it would be found in the same valley." I
cannot display such wonders as these in this little Compilation, yet I
think there will be found in it many quaint and curious "things not
generally known"; and I trust that it may not only interest Manx Folk
and Visitor Folk, but that it may be accepted as a contribution--though
an insignificant one--to the science of Folk-Lore.'
Library of Southern Literature.
'The "Library of Southern Literature" includes a wide range of literary
works of the American South published before 1924. This collection was
originally based on Dr. Robert Bain's bibliography of the hundred most
important Southern literary works and continues to expand under the
guidance of scholarly advisors Dr. Joseph M. Flora and Dr. William L.
Andrews. This collection begins with some of the earliest texts about
America written by British discoverers that set the foundation for
American letters and traces the development of Southern literature
through to the beginning of the twentieth century.'
Moissaye J. Olgin Reference Archive. Socialist
'Moissaye J. Olgin was born in 1878 on shtetl near Kiev. After attending
a traditional Jewish cheder he entered the University of Kiev, where he
began his career as a revolutionary. In 1901 he was elected chairman of
the Student's Central Committee, while also being a member of the
revolutionary group, Freiheit. In April 1903 the Czarist regime ordered
his arrest for his role in the formation of Jewish self-defense groups,
at which point he moved to Vilna, Poland...'
EternityTravel. Book your afterlife now.
'We give the discerning, God(s)-fearing ancient Egyptian consumer the
tools and information to plan for a safe, speedy, comfortable trip to
Creative Mind, 1923. Esoterica.
'THE hand of eternal progress is brushing the cobwebs from the corridors
of time and is again revealing to the human race the mysteries of being.
As there is "nothing new under the sun," the searchlight of Truth is
bringing to light only what has been known to the few in all generations.
The time has now come when the few must become the many. The whole world,
from the least to the greatest, must know the Truth, so that man may
understand the great laws that govern his life...'
Zimbabwean artists face the crisis.
' Zimbabwean artist Muzhuzha Zenda Chiweshe and photographer Matambudzo
live in Chitungwiza, near Harare - a town devastated by the crackdown on
so-called illegal buildings and traders. '
Mary Seacole (1805-1881).
'Born Mary Jane Grant in 1805 to a free-black Jamaican,
her mother ran a boarding house for British soldiers
and sailors in the capital city of Kingston. Mary
related in her bestselling autobiography 'Wonderful
Adventures of Mrs Mary Seacole in Many Lands' how her
mother, known as doctress, passed onto her the arts of
Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill.
'Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill are two of Canada's most
important 19th-century writers. Born in England only 23 months apart,
the two sisters became professional writers before they married. In
1832 they emigrated with their Scottish husbands to Canada, settling
in the backwoods of what is now Ontario, near present-day Lakefield.
They recorded and interpreted their experiences as pioneers in books
for which they remain famous to this day ... '
Seventeen Moments in Soviet History.
'Soviet history, like few others, has a beginning and an end. Born in a
surge of optimism on October 25, 1917, and dissolving in chaos on
December 8, 1991, the Soviet experiment gave the world vivid examples
of collective endeavor and civic self-destruction. The Bolsheviks seized
power in a crumbling empire, split by deep class divisions and ruined by
years of war. They empowered the lower classes to govern, integrated
ethnic minorities into state power, gave women rights unknown in other
countries, and offered universal education and opportunities for
self-improvement. These same Bolsheviks and their successors were
also responsible for some of the bloodiest state crimes the world has
American Diaspora. Where the Hurricane Katrina
evacuees have gone.
'The impact of great wars, floods, and fires reverberates for decades.
New Orleans was already seeing a long-term population decline before
Katrina, and the rebuilt city is likely to be even smaller. Biloxi's
casinos will probably be rebuilt, but it is unlikely that the new ones
will float in the bay as the old ones did. There are calls to restore
the bayous of southern Louisiana as flood barriers, and steep increases
in insurance rates could cause the owners of beachfront property to
scale back on their rebuilding plans. '
Black Mask Magazine.
'Welcome to Black Mask Magazine.com, the official web site for the pulp
magazine that launched a thousand pop culture dreams.'
'Were Black Mask Magazine.com just the cyber-revival of the classic
hard-boiled pulp crime mag that first introduced the world to such
writers as Dashiell Hammett, Erle Stanley Gardner and Raymond Chandler,
it would be a big enough deal... but we also hold the rights for a slew
of other pulp magazines: Dime Detective, Strange Detective Mysteries,
Terror Tales and others...'
' "street meme": a sticker, stencil, or poster that can spread a single
image around the world. Unlike traditional graffiti art where each piece
is unique, street memes can be copied repeatedly, taking on a life of
their own, and spreading through the collective effort of people
scattered around the world.'
Tattoo Baby Doll Project.
'I find cloth bodied baby dolls at thrift shops and send them to tattoo
artists who then draw original tattoos directly on the dolls. They send
the dolls back to me and I hand embroider the images on the cloth
bodies. Twelve of sixteen dolls have been completed to date. The dolls,
like their artists, are of different races, religious and sexual
orientations, and cultural backgrounds. Each collaborating artist is
asked to consider her response to tattooing the doll along with my
feedback and response to embroidering the doll. From there she is
encouraged to name and then write a short statement or story about her
Otokoyama Sake Museum.
'The Otokoyama Sake Museum tells about not only the 340 year history of
Otokoyama, but also about the history of one of Japanese traditional
industries: sake making. In the museum, you can see Utamaro's ukiyoe,
and many important items from the Edo period. There is sake making
equipment, sake literature, sake bottles and glasses, and other items
Ukiyo-e about sake.
Soviet Russia: A Living Record and a History, 1929.
'In preparing this book, which is the product of seven years' residence
in Russia in the capacity of a journalist, I have tried to combine an
impartial analysis of what has happened in Russia with an attitude of
open-minded curiosity as to what may lie in the future. The French
philosopher Remy de Gourmont once recommended the ideal of "seeing the
six sides of the cube." Probably the cube represented by the Russian
Revolution has more than six sides, and I am far from confident that I
have seen all of them in accurate perspective. But I think I may
maintain that such mistakes as time will doubtless reveal in my
interpretation of the Soviet Union are without bias aforethought and are
not the result of some preconceived dogmatic view of a movement which is
still too young and too fluid to fit into any hard-and-fast
The Acadian Renaissance. Acadian, or 'Cajun',
'The century that follows the expulsion of the Acadians - the "Great
Disturbance" of 1755 - is a period of reconstruction for the Acadian
people. But it is also a period of isolation, due to the fact that they
are scattered throughout various regions of eastern Canada. During the
second half of the 19th century, a growing awareness on the part of all
Acadians produces a desire for a society on a par with that of their
English and French-Canadian fellow citizens. This, in turn, leads to
a remarkable resurgence of this forsaken people, one that makes itself
felt at all levels - social, economic, political, cultural and religious.
The period in question becomes known as the Acadian Renaissance...'
Banned Books Online.
'Welcome to this special exhibit of books that have been the objects of
censorship or censorship attempts. The books featured here, ranging
from Ulysses to Little Red Riding Hood, have been selected from the
indexes of The Online Books Page. (See that page for over 20,000
more online books!) ...'
The Falkland Islands. Official Falklands portal -
one of the last bits of the British Empire.
'Welcome to the official website of the Falkland Islands. Through
its pages, we hope to tell you about our history, our people and
the wildlife with which we share these remote and beautiful islands
in the South Atlantic. '
'DefCon is an online grassroots movement combating the growing power
of the religious right. We will fight for the separation of church
and state, individual freedom, scientific progress, pluralism, and
tolerance while respecting people of faith and their beliefs. '
All About Birds.
' Learn some of the secrets of bird identification using silhouettes,
posture, flight pattern, size and habitat, in addition to key field
The American Civil War Homepage.
"...but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive,
and the other would accept war rather than let it perish,
and the war came." -
Abraham Lincoln, 2nd Inaugural Address
4 March 1865.
The Traditions of Exemplary Women. Women in
'This project focuses on the Lienü zhuan (Traditions of Exemplary Women)
of Liu Xiang (77-6 B.C.), the earliest extant book in the Chinese
tradition solely devoted to the moral education of women. The book
consists of biographical accounts of female role models in early China
and became the standard textbook for women's education for the next two
millennia. The Lienü zhuan offers important insights into the culture,
politics, and social structure of early China, as well as into the
representation of women in various phases of China's history. '
Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive.
'The Salem witchcraft events began in late February 1692 and lasted
through April, 1693. All told, at least twenty-five people died:
nineteen were executed by hanging, one was tortured to death, and at
least five died in jail due to harsh conditions. Over 160 people were
accused of witchcraft, most were jailed, and many deprived of property
and legal rights. Accused persons lived in the town of Salem and Salem
Village (now Danvers) and in two dozen other towns in eastern
Massachusetts Bay Colony. Nearly fifty people confessed to witchcraft,
most to save themselves from immediate trial...'
Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico.
'Chaco Culture National Historical Park preserves one of America's most
significant and fascinating cultural and historic areas. '
'Chaco Canyon was a major center of ancestral Puebloan culture between
AD 850 and 1250. It was a hub of ceremony, trade, and administration for
the prehistoric Four Corners area - unlike anything before or since...'
The Poems of Sappho.
'The poet Sappho lived in the sixth century B.C. on the island of
Lesbos, which is situated in the Northeastern Aegean. We do not know the
exact date of her birth or death, but it has been suggested that she was
alive from about 610 B.C to 570 B.C. Her family is known to have been
wealthy merchants; Lesbos in the sixth century B.C. was very prosperous.
That she lived a life of luxury, and loved beatiful clothes and
ornaments is clear from several allusions in the fragments. In addition,
it is known that women of Lesbos at this time were exceptionally
liberated and moved freely in social and religious circles. Lesbos was
the center of a flourishing school of lyric poetry. Some of the other
Lesbian poets of this period were Terpander and Alcaeus, and there were
several other women poets...'
or, The Religious Philosophy of the Hebrews.
'This is a scholarly study of the origin and evolution of the Kabbalah.
Originally published in French in 1843, with a second French edition in
1889, this book traces the origins of the philosophical concepts of the
Kabbalah to the ancient Zoroastrians. Franck goes into fascinating detail
about the doctrine of the Kabbalah, as expressed in the Sepher Yetzirah
and the Zohar. He uses internal evidence to trace the origins of these
texts many centuries prior to their first known publication in the
thirteenth century C.E.'
Ernst Mandel Internet Archive. Marxist writer
'He was born in Frankfurt, Germany in April 1923. His parents sought
refuge in Belgium in the 1930s, settling in Antwerp. The Mandel home
was a safe haven and centre for German political refugees, most often
Trotskyists. Ernest's father, Henri Mandel, had been a member of the
German CP, worked as a journalist for the Soviet Press Agency, and was
a personal friend of Karl Radek, Lenin's emissary to the German party...'
The Island of Sark.
"Small, sweet world of wave-encompassed wonder" - A C Swinburne.
'The Island of Sark is the smallest of the four major Channel Islands:
Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark, but it enjoys a fame that is out
of all proportion to its size. Although it has had a varied and eventful
history, its widespread fame is derived from its scenic beauty and from
its unique constitutional status as the smallest independent 'state' in
the British Commonwealth, and perceived as the last bastion of feudalism
in the western world.'
NASA Space Calendar.
'The Space Calendar covers space-related activities and anniversaries
for the coming year. Included are over 1,500 links to related home
Miss Abigail's Time Warp Advice.
'Welcome! Take a step back in time as I pull out relevant quotes,
tidbits, and words of wisdom from my collection of old advice books
in a quest to solve your modern-day dilemmas. The books span from 1822
to 1978 and cover the age-old topics of dating, love, living together,
marriage, health, beauty, puberty, sex, etiquette, housekeeping, home
economics, and home repairs. I hope you enjoy your stay! '
Documents from the Continental Congress and the
Constitutional Convention, 1774-89.
'The Continental Congress Broadside Collection (253 titles) and the
Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection (21 titles) contain
274 documents relating to the work of Congress and the drafting and
ratification of the Constitution. Items include extracts of the
journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations, committee reports,
treaties, and early printed versions of the United States Constitution
and the Declaration of Independence. Most broadsides are one page in
length; others range from 1 to 28 pages. A number of these items contain
manuscript annotations not recorded elsewhere that offer insight into
the delicate process of creating consensus. In many cases, multiple
copies bearing manuscript annotations are available to compare and
Miller NAWSA Suffrage Scrapbooks, 1897-1911.
'Between 1897 and 1911 Elizabeth Smith Miller and her daughter, Anne
Fitzhugh Miller, filled seven large scrapbooks with ephemera and
memorabilia related to their work with women's suffrage. The Elizabeth
Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller scrapbooks are a part of the
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Collection in the
Rare Book and Special Collections Division. These scrapbooks document
the activities of the Geneva Political Equality Club, which the Millers
founded in 1897, as well as efforts at the state, national, and
international levels to win the vote for women. They offer a unique
look at the political and social atmosphere of the time as well as
chronicle the efforts of two women who were major participants in
the suffrage movement. '
Remember the Alamo.
'In the early 1830s Texas was about to explode. Although ruled by Mexico,
the region was home to more than 20,000 U.S. settlers agitated by what
they saw as restrictive Mexican policies. Mexican officials, concerned
with illegal trading and immigration, were prepared to fight hard to
keep the province under their control. Caught in the middle were the
area's 4,000 Mexican Texans or Tejanos.'
'With war on the horizon, the Tejanos had to pick a side. Many chose to
fight with their Anglo neighbors against an army sent by Mexico City. The
conflict pitted brother against brother and devastated the community. The
Tejano gamble for a more prosperous future in an independent Texas proved
tragic. Following the revolution, the Tejanos were overwhelmed by a surge
of Anglo immigration -- leaving them foreigners in a land they had
fought to defend. '
War Tax Resistance. A history, from the War
'Up until World War II, war tax resistance in the U.S. primarily
manifested itself among members of the historic peace churches -
Quakers, Mennonites, and Brethren - and usually only during times of
war. There has been instances of people refusing to pay taxes for war
in virtually every American war, but it was not until World War II and
the establishment of a permanent, centralized U.S. military (symbolized
by the building of the Pentagon) was the modern war tax resistance
Creative Commons in Review:
Lawrence Lessig on How it All Began. Lawrence
the history and future of the Creative Commons,
an alternative, 'open source' model for
intellectual property and intellectual sharing.
Lessig proposed the concept of 'free culture',
a concept uniquely suited to the way we can do things in
the Internet age - open source knowledge and open
source culture (think Perl, Linux), as
opposed to the 'fenced off backyards' of traditional
copyright. Copyright, whilst
crucial to the development of our industrialised
societies, when overused leads to a stifling of the free spread
What is the Creative Commons?
'Too often the debate over creative control tends to the extremes.
At one pole is a vision of total control - a world in which every
last use of a work is regulated and in which "all rights reserved"
(and then some) is the norm. At the other end is a vision of anarchy
- a world in which creators enjoy a wide range of freedom but are
left vulnerable to exploitation. Balance, compromise, and moderation
- once the driving forces of a copyright system that valued innovation
and protection equally - have become endangered species...Creative Commons
is working to revive them. We use private rights to create public goods:
creative works set free for certain uses. Like the free software and
open-source movements, our ends are cooperative and community-minded,
but our means are voluntary and libertarian. '
Who is Lawrence Lessig?
Alternative systems of intellectual property rights
'Other informal systems of protection include the customary code of
non-infringement used by clowns to recognise each performer's exclusive
right to their unique style of makeup, costume and persona. The
universality of "The Code" supports the belief amongst clowns that
this traditional protection is more effective than that provided by
trademark and copyright law. Nevertheless, clowns sometimes do seek
the protection of "clown material" using intellectual property laws,
perhaps against infringement by third parties outside the clown
Patenting, genes and living organisms. Another
issue related to intellectual property.
'The diary of a Saudi man, currently living in the United Kingdom,
where the Religious Police no longer trouble him for the moment.'
Selected American Civil War Photographs.
'The Selected Civil War Photographs Collection contains 1,118
photographs. Most of the images were made under the supervision of
Mathew B. Brady, and include scenes of military personnel, preparations
for battle, and battle after-effects. The collection also includes
portraits of both Confederate and Union officers, and a selection of
enlisted men. '
Ibsen. Extensive site about the Norwegian
playwright and poet.
'Henrik Ibsen (1828 - 1906) is one of the very greatest names in world
literature. He was a central figure in the modern break-through in the
intellectual life of Europe, and is considered the father of modern
drama. His plays are still highly topical, and continue to be staged in
all parts of the world. It is said that Ibsen is the most frequently
performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare...'
Snow: A Historical Giant in Epidemiology. He mapped
epidemics in Victorian London.
Map of John Snow's London in 1859.
Father of epidemiology.
In September of 1848, when Snow was thirty-five, a new outbreak of
cholera struck London. He decided to track the progress of the disease.
to see if he could determine exactly how it was spread. He learned that
the first victim, John Harnold, a merchant seaman, had arrived from
Hamburg by ship on September 22. Harnold had gone ashore and rented a
room in the London community of Horsleydown where he had quickly
developed cholera symptoms and died...'
Booth and the Survey of Life and Labour in
London 1886-1903. Poverty maps of London in
the Victorian era.
'Charles Booth was one of those remarkable English Victorians who can
justly be described as one of the great and the good. Profoundly
concerned by contemporary social problems, and not a pious nor even a
religious man, he recognised the limitations of philanthropy and
conditional charity in addressing the poverty which scarred British
society. Without any commission other than his own he devised,
organised, and funded one of the most comprehensive and scientific
social surveys of London life that had then been undertaken. Booth also
added his voice to the cause of state old age pensions as a practical
instrument of social policy to alleviate destitution in old age,
established as one of the commonest causes of pauperism. Simultaneously
he was a successful businessman, running international interests in the
leather industry and a steam shipping line.'