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20th October

Marian Anderson: A Life in Song.
'This exhibition celebrates the artistic development and musical career of Marian Anderson. Renowned throughout the world for her extraordinary contralto voice, she is also remembered for her dignity and grace under pressure. Through the mechanism of recorded sound, we can continue to enjoy Ms. Anderson's renderings of Lieder and spirituals . Through the reflected light of photographs, we can glimpse the preparation and performance of her repertoire. And through the papers that she left behind, we can investigate and understand how, when, where, and with whom her life took shape, was enriched, and became enriching not only for her audiences but also for others in need.'

Rembrandt's Self-Portraits.

Photo Japan: Rural School Near Sapporo, Hokkaido in the 1950s.

Misunderstood Minds.
'Millions of American children struggle in school daily because of serious learning problems. The causes are often unknown, specific problems can be difficult to pinpoint, and the long-term effects hard to predict. '
'Research in the field of learning problems took off in the 1960s, when the first federal funds were earmarked to support children with specific learning disabilities. Experts know more now than ever before, but the evolution of that knowledge also parallels the rise of standardized tests and the current era of high-stakes testing. The tension between the demand for academic success and the stubborn reality of a problem makes learning difficulties one of the most contentious topics in an increasingly competitive and educated society...'

Pueblo Pottery Maine. Galleries and information.
'We participate in Fair Trade Practices by paying Native American artists fair prices for their work and not inflating retail prices to mislead buyers with an illusion of greater value or savings.'

Thomas Nashe (1567-1601). Renaissance English literature.
'Thomas Nashe was born in Lowestoft in 1561, and educated at St John's College, Cambridge. After graduating in 1586, he became one of the "University Wits", a circle of writers who came to London and wrote for the stage and the press. In 1589 his preface to Robert Greene's Menaphon was published. It attacked contemporary writers who plagiarized from classical authors, and praised Spenser and Greene. The Anatomie of Absurditie, also published in 1589, was a satire of contemporary literature, especially of romances...'

A Brief History of the Rice Computer 1959-1971.
'There were two major purposes in designing the Rice machine. The first was to provide a platform on which members of the Rice community could do research that would have been impossibly time-consuming without access to a computer. This was, in fact, the major reason that the project was started: Zevi Salsburg wanted a machine as powerful as Los Alamos's MANIAC II to simulate fluid flow. He did not, however, have any desire to move to Los Alamos, and therefore needed a computer to be built at Rice.'
'The other goal of the machine was to do research into how computers should be built. In the years following John von Neumann's death, the Atomic Energy Commission became quite interested in funding computer research: Salsburg's request came at a time when the AEC's goals could be better met by funding the development of a new system than by offering to build a copy of MANIAC II or to buy a stock IBM computer...'

The Sikh Religion, Volume 1, 1909.
'This is one of the first (and still one of the few) comprehensive books about the Sikh religion in the English language. MacAuliffe had extensive access to manuscripts of the Sikh sacred writings (the Granth), as well as support from Sikh scholars and leaders of the time. This volume covers Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. '

Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst.
'In 1974, a militant, fringe, political group kidnapped teenage newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst from her Berkeley apartment. In the months that followed. Hearst, the Symbionese Liberation Army (S.L.A.), and their constant, paramilitary audio messages dominated headlines globally.'
'Using a treasure trove of archival footage and audio material, this American Experience film follows the bizarre saga from the establishment of the S.L.A., through the kidnapping, Hearst's conversion to her captors' cause, and the bank robberies and shootouts that followed.'
'First-ever interviews with two surviving members of the S.L.A. provide insight into the politically charged times and the reasons why the group embraced revolutionary rhetoric and a terrorist agenda. As the spectacle unfolds, and journalists camped outside the Hearst home become consumed by the story, the film begins to explore questions about the role of the media and the ethics of broadcast journalism.'

The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire.
'The authors of the present book, who come from a country (Estonia) which has shared the fate of nations in the Russian and Soviet empires, endeavour to publicize the plight of the small nations whose very existence is threatened as a result of recent history. Perhaps it is not too late to give a supporting hand to them without an attempt at either ideological brainwashing or economic exploitation. '

Alabama: A State of the Blues.

Atlas of US Presidential Elections.
'The Atlas is a free internet resource providing results of U.S. Presidential Elections to the world community. Data is collected from many official sources and presented here in one convenient location. '

Himalayan Art: Dege Gonchen Monastery.
'In the Dege region of Kham province, Tibet (present day China) the great monastery of Lundrub Teng (Dege Gonchen) was founded in 1448 by the first Dege King Tashi Sengge and the famous ascetic Tang Tong Gyalpo...'

Some of Einstein's Writings on Science and Religion. "I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals Himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings."

Electronic Biologia Centrali-Americana.
'This digital edition of the important and out-of-print Biologia Centrali-Americana makes all 58 biological volumes available. Descriptions of over 50,000 and images of over 18,000 species of animals and plants are now accessible as never before...'

Take a Look Through My Eyes. 'This site is about people who are mentally disabled (or mentally handicapped). We want to show you that these people are very much the same as you and I. They go to school, have a job, like to watch television, like to play games or sports. Or hate sports.'

USA 101. American images.

The Complete Sherlock Holmes.

Introduction to the Beijing Opera.

History of the English Peasants' Revolt.

The North Carolina Experience, Beginnings to 1940. '"The North Carolina Experience, Beginnings to 1940" collects a wide variety of print and manuscript materials that tell the story of the Tar Heel State as seen through representative histories, descriptive accounts, institutional reports, fiction, and other writing. It comprises printed works, images, oral history interviews, and workplace songs.'

North Carolinians and the Great War. '"North Carolinians and the Great War" examines how World War I shaped the lives of different North Carolinians on the battlefield and on the home front as well how the state and federal government responded to war-time demands. The collection focuses on the years of American involvement in the war between 1917 and 1919, but it also examines the legacies of the war in the 1920s.'

John Paul Jones. 'John Paul Jones is famous in the United States as the 'Father of the American Navy'. He was born in poverty and through his skills became a distinguished naval officer fighting for both the USA and Russia. In Britain he is rather remembered as a pirate. '

Boring Postcards from Sweden.

Panorama of the Lithuanian Museums.

The New Games Journalism - by Kieron Gillen.

About Our Magical Island Ibiza. History and art.

Recording Technology History.

419 Eater. 'So what is scambaiting? Well, put simply, you enter into a dialogue with scammers, simply to waste their precious time and resources. Whilst you are doing this, you will be helping to keep the scammers away from real potential victims. '

Acronym Finder. Find out what over 2,441,000 acronyms and abbreviations stand for.

253: a novel for the Internet about London Underground in seven cars and a crash.

19th October

Committee to Protect Bloggers.

The Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History.

Representative Poetry Online.
'Representative Poetry Online, version 3.0, includes 3,162 English poems by 500 poets from Caedmon, in the Old English period, to the work of living poets today. It is based on Representative Poetry, established by Professor W. J. Alexander of University College, University of Toronto, in 1912 (one of the first books published by the University of Toronto Press), and used in the English Department at the University until the late 1960s...'

Greenland Guide. 'This is the official guide to Greenland. The travel information is provided by the national tourist board. '

Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). Online gallery, article.

Two Days in October.
'Based on the book They Marched Into Sunlight by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist David Maraniss, Two Days in October tells the story of two turbulent days in October 1967 when history turned a corner.'
'In Vietnam, a U.S. battalion unwittingly marched into a Viet Cong trap. Sixty-one young men were killed and as many wounded. The ambush prompted some in power to wonder whether the war might be unwinnable.'
'Half a world away, concerned students at the University of Wisconsin protested the presence of Dow Chemical recruiters on campus. The demonstration spiraled out of control, marking the first time that a student protest had turned violent.'
'Told almost entirely by the people who took part in the harrowing events of those two days -- American soldiers, police officers, relatives of men killed in battle, protesting students, university administrators and Viet Cong fighters -- the film offers a window onto a moment that divided a nation and a war that continues to haunt us.'

Dr. Shao You-Bai Overseas Chinese Documentation and Research Centre.
'Overseas Chinese, numbering 30 million and living in over 136 different countries and areas, are now the most widespread ethnic group in the world. Overseas Chinese carry their significance not just in their number and extensive geographic distribution but also in their varied contributions to the world. With liquid assets of several trillion dollars, Overseas Chinese play a significant role in the economic development of the Asia-Pacific region in particular and the world in general. They have brought Chinese culture to every corner of the world, thus enriching and diversifying the cultures of their adopted countries. Their increasing political consciousness and participation is visible in local and national affairs of the countries where they reside...'

Gemini Observatory. Astronomy image gallery.

World War II Resources. 'Primary source materials on the Web. Original documents regarding all aspects of the war.'

"Votes for Women" Suffrage Pictures 1850-1920. (USA)
'The Library of Congress has extensive and varied resources related to the campaign for woman suffrage in the United States. This selection of 38 pictures includes portraits of many individuals who have been frequently requested from the holdings of the Prints and Photographs Division and the Manuscript Division. Also featured are photographs of suffrage parades, picketing suffragists, and an anti-suffrage display, as well as cartoons commenting on the movement--all evoking the visible and visual way in which the debate over women's suffrage was carried out. This online illustrated reference aid is part of the "By Popular Demand" series. It is a pictorial partner for the text documents in "'Votes for Women:' Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Collection, 1848-1920." '

Tales of Old Shanghai.
'Old Shanghai was a very special time and place. The city was run by foreigners but was not a colony, most residents were Chinese but it was not ruled by China. It was the greatest city of Asia, completely eclipsing Hong Kong and Tokyo. It was one of the most cosmopolitan places that ever existed, full of growth and speculation, of rogues and adventurers, of color and life, and of poverty and death.'
'Old Shanghai was the worst and the best of everything. It was the "Whore of Asia" and also the "Paris of the East". It was a "paradise for adventurers". Over the decades, it was a haven to millions of people, both Chinese and non-Chinese, who sought refuge there from the wars and the poverty that surrounded it. '

Livonian Life Stories. Stories about the Livonian people, who reside within Latvia.
'Lizete ?vanenberga, 85 years old, recorded at Luznja, Kolka peninsula, in 1987. She spoke in the Tamian dialect of Latvian. There is a simple explanation that the Tamian dialect was created by Livonians when they use Livonian Grammar rules in Latvian speech. In Lizete's Lifestory there are memories about an Estonian professor Loorits, whom she calls Baltgalvîtis ('Whiteheaded man', because of his white hair), carefully listening and learning her mother's Livonian language and folk-tales. Like roe in the wood's darkness - so beautiful and clueless - this folkteller Oskar Loorits wrote poetically about Lizete's mother. The call of the wild and mythological outlook echoes throughout Lizete's mother. The call of the wild and mythological outlook echoes throughout Lizete's life story.'

About Darwin.
The life of Charles Darwin.

A Passion for Jazz! All about the history of jazz and blues.

Mail Artist. Images of mail art and artistamps.

The Papers of Jefferson Davis.
'Best known as president of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, Jefferson Davis was also a Mexican War hero, served in the House of Representatives and the Senate, and was secretary of war under Franklin Pierce. After the Civil War he became a symbol of the Lost Cause. '
'The Papers of Jefferson Davis, a documentary editing project based at Rice University in Houston, Texas, is publishing a multi-volume edition of his letters and speeches, several of which can be found on this web site. The site also provides extensive information on Davis and his family and numerous images.'

Joan Miro 1893-1983. Art.
'Joan Miró Ferra was born on April 20, 1893 in Barcelona, into the family of a goldsmith and watchmaker. Miró started drawing classes at the age of seven, but later yielding to his parents? insistence to receive a decent profession took business classes and became a book-keeper. Simultaneously, in 1907-10 Joan Miró studied art in the academy La Escuela de la Lonja in Barcelona in the class of the landscapist Modesto Urgell Inglada and professor of decorative and applied arts José Pasco Merisa. In 1912-15, he studied in the private academy of Francese D?A. Galí Fabra. In 1918, together with some like-minded friends Miró founded ?Agrupació Courbet?, a group of young artists who opposed themselves to conservative traditions in Catalan art. In his works of 1913-17 the most important are the influences of Cézanne and the Fauvists: objects are close to each other and shine with bright and broken colors; striped patterns make up a kind of decorative ornament... '

History of Africa.

List of 'The Simpsons' Episodes. With synopses!

Alfred E. Neuman Quotes. 'Alfred E. Neuman. He's the freaky little kid that has appeared on almost every MAD cover, and also has had a "thought provoking" quote in just about every issue. Some of his quotes sound so intelligent that they might lead you to believe that he's not a complete idiot. But he is. Anyway, here are the quotes since issue #335!'

Political Satire and Humour | UK Department of Social Scrutiny. Britain, what a state.

18th October

Vintage Vegas Postcard Museum. 'Has there ever been a city that looked better on a postcard than Las Vegas? '

The Lincoln Log: A Daily Chronology of the Life of Abraham Lincoln.

The XII Tai Situpa.
'The lineage of the Tai Situpas is traced to one of the main disciples of the Gotama Buddha, the Bodhisattva Maitreya. Since that time there have been a successive chain of incarnations, whose achievements are recorded in Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan annals. A direct lineage that continues to the present day. '

King Felix.
'If you must know, the current actions of an unlikely cipher clerk in an unlikely North American city are having the effect of ending the world. Let it be said, however, that the fault lies not with him, but with the Creator of said world. It was He who, in the beginning, allowed certain errors to creep into the source code, errors which have compounded and are now manifesting themselves in our clerk's apocalyptic activities. The attached documents will show that the clerk is merely following this Creator's program...'

History of Haiti.

Public Lettering. A walk in central London.
'This site is based on a walk by Phil Baines for his graphic design students which was then written up for the 1997 ATypI conference. The text has been updated and expanded to include other examples. This walk concentrates on larger examples of public lettering and doesn't mention incidentals - stop-cocks, manholes, dates on buildings, builders marks, &c - of which there is much en route. Much of the pleasure of this kind of walk, is finding things yourself. '

Observing the Sun in Hydrogen-Alpha Light. Solar images.

Excavating Occaneechi Town. Archaeology of an 18th century Indian village in North Carolina.

Newspaper Pictorials: World War I Rotogravures. Focuses on US newspapers.
'The images in this collection track American sentiment about the war in Europe, week by week, before and after the United States became involved. Events of the war are detailed alongside society news and advertisements touting products of the day, creating a pictorial record of both the war effort and life at home. The collection includes an illustrated history of World War I selected from newspaper rotogravure sections that graphically documents the people, places, and events important to the war.'

Map of Monuments and Museums of Paris.

Tibetan Folk Tales, 1925.
'It is found among the old, old histories of the Tibetans that a female demon living among the mountains in Northern India mated with a monkey from the forests of Tibet, and from this union sprang the Tibetan race of people. The greater part of their literature is of a sacred nature, telling of their creation, of the formation of the world, of Buddha and his miraculous birth and death, of his reincarnations and the revisions of his teachings.'

Folk-lore of the Isle of Man, 1891.
'The wonders of the Isle of Man, according to Nennius, are "a strand without a sea . . . . a ford which is far from the sea, and which fills when the tide flows, and decreases when the tide ebbs"; and "a stone which moves at night in Glen Cinden, and though it should be cast into the sea, yet at morning's dawn it would be found in the same valley." I cannot display such wonders as these in this little Compilation, yet I think there will be found in it many quaint and curious "things not generally known"; and I trust that it may not only interest Manx Folk and Visitor Folk, but that it may be accepted as a contribution--though an insignificant one--to the science of Folk-Lore.'

Library of Southern Literature.
'The "Library of Southern Literature" includes a wide range of literary works of the American South published before 1924. This collection was originally based on Dr. Robert Bain's bibliography of the hundred most important Southern literary works and continues to expand under the guidance of scholarly advisors Dr. Joseph M. Flora and Dr. William L. Andrews. This collection begins with some of the earliest texts about America written by British discoverers that set the foundation for American letters and traces the development of Southern literature through to the beginning of the twentieth century.'

The Moissaye J. Olgin Reference Archive. Socialist writer.
'Moissaye J. Olgin was born in 1878 on shtetl near Kiev. After attending a traditional Jewish cheder he entered the University of Kiev, where he began his career as a revolutionary. In 1901 he was elected chairman of the Student's Central Committee, while also being a member of the revolutionary group, Freiheit. In April 1903 the Czarist regime ordered his arrest for his role in the formation of Jewish self-defense groups, at which point he moved to Vilna, Poland...'

EternityTravel. Book your afterlife now.
'We give the discerning, God(s)-fearing ancient Egyptian consumer the tools and information to plan for a safe, speedy, comfortable trip to the afterlife.'

Creative Mind, 1923. Esoterica.
'THE hand of eternal progress is brushing the cobwebs from the corridors of time and is again revealing to the human race the mysteries of being. As there is "nothing new under the sun," the searchlight of Truth is bringing to light only what has been known to the few in all generations. The time has now come when the few must become the many. The whole world, from the least to the greatest, must know the Truth, so that man may understand the great laws that govern his life...'

Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.

Historic Church Documents at

OSHA's Lost Workday Injury and Illness Database. 'Injury/Illness Rates for Tens of Thousands of Companies Identified by Name'

Zimbabwean artists face the crisis. ' Zimbabwean artist Muzhuzha Zenda Chiweshe and photographer Matambudzo live in Chitungwiza, near Harare - a town devastated by the crackdown on so-called illegal buildings and traders. '

17th October

Mary Seacole (1805-1881).
'Born Mary Jane Grant in 1805 to a free-black Jamaican, her mother ran a boarding house for British soldiers and sailors in the capital city of Kingston. Mary related in her bestselling autobiography 'Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Mary Seacole in Many Lands' how her mother, known as doctress, passed onto her the arts of Creole medicine...'

Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill.
'Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill are two of Canada's most important 19th-century writers. Born in England only 23 months apart, the two sisters became professional writers before they married. In 1832 they emigrated with their Scottish husbands to Canada, settling in the backwoods of what is now Ontario, near present-day Lakefield. They recorded and interpreted their experiences as pioneers in books for which they remain famous to this day ... '

Seventeen Moments in Soviet History.
'Soviet history, like few others, has a beginning and an end. Born in a surge of optimism on October 25, 1917, and dissolving in chaos on December 8, 1991, the Soviet experiment gave the world vivid examples of collective endeavor and civic self-destruction. The Bolsheviks seized power in a crumbling empire, split by deep class divisions and ruined by years of war. They empowered the lower classes to govern, integrated ethnic minorities into state power, gave women rights unknown in other countries, and offered universal education and opportunities for self-improvement. These same Bolsheviks and their successors were also responsible for some of the bloodiest state crimes the world has known...'

Vintage Photographs of Taisho Era Japan (1912-26).

American Diaspora. Where the Hurricane Katrina evacuees have gone.
'The impact of great wars, floods, and fires reverberates for decades. New Orleans was already seeing a long-term population decline before Katrina, and the rebuilt city is likely to be even smaller. Biloxi's casinos will probably be rebuilt, but it is unlikely that the new ones will float in the bay as the old ones did. There are calls to restore the bayous of southern Louisiana as flood barriers, and steep increases in insurance rates could cause the owners of beachfront property to scale back on their rebuilding plans. '

Black Mask Magazine.
'Welcome to Black Mask, the official web site for the pulp magazine that launched a thousand pop culture dreams.'
'Were Black Mask just the cyber-revival of the classic hard-boiled pulp crime mag that first introduced the world to such writers as Dashiell Hammett, Erle Stanley Gardner and Raymond Chandler, it would be a big enough deal... but we also hold the rights for a slew of other pulp magazines: Dime Detective, Strange Detective Mysteries, Terror Tales and others...'

To the Moon: Our Journeys to Luna (and Back). A timeline of lunar exploration.

Stencil Archive.

Street Memes.
' "street meme": a sticker, stencil, or poster that can spread a single image around the world. Unlike traditional graffiti art where each piece is unique, street memes can be copied repeatedly, taking on a life of their own, and spreading through the collective effort of people scattered around the world.'

The Tattoo Baby Doll Project.
'I find cloth bodied baby dolls at thrift shops and send them to tattoo artists who then draw original tattoos directly on the dolls. They send the dolls back to me and I hand embroider the images on the cloth bodies. Twelve of sixteen dolls have been completed to date. The dolls, like their artists, are of different races, religious and sexual orientations, and cultural backgrounds. Each collaborating artist is asked to consider her response to tattooing the doll along with my feedback and response to embroidering the doll. From there she is encouraged to name and then write a short statement or story about her doll.'

The Trial of the Earls of Essex and Southampton. 1679 publication about the 1601 trial.
Southampton protests that he was ignorant of the law, and denies he was ever a Papist. (If his lady mother were here, she would weep.)

Otokoyama Sake Museum. 'The Otokoyama Sake Museum tells about not only the 340 year history of Otokoyama, but also about the history of one of Japanese traditional industries: sake making. In the museum, you can see Utamaro's ukiyoe, and many important items from the Edo period. There is sake making equipment, sake literature, sake bottles and glasses, and other items ...'
Ukiyo-e about sake.

Mosaics in Barcelona.

Perl Poetry. Poetic programs in Perl.

Soviet Russia: A Living Record and a History, 1929.
'In preparing this book, which is the product of seven years' residence in Russia in the capacity of a journalist, I have tried to combine an impartial analysis of what has happened in Russia with an attitude of open-minded curiosity as to what may lie in the future. The French philosopher Remy de Gourmont once recommended the ideal of "seeing the six sides of the cube." Probably the cube represented by the Russian Revolution has more than six sides, and I am far from confident that I have seen all of them in accurate perspective. But I think I may maintain that such mistakes as time will doubtless reveal in my interpretation of the Soviet Union are without bias aforethought and are not the result of some preconceived dogmatic view of a movement which is still too young and too fluid to fit into any hard-and-fast classification. '

Fire Island Lighthouse. Fire Island, New York. History, virtual tour, etc.

The Acadian Renaissance. Acadian, or 'Cajun', history.
'The century that follows the expulsion of the Acadians - the "Great Disturbance" of 1755 - is a period of reconstruction for the Acadian people. But it is also a period of isolation, due to the fact that they are scattered throughout various regions of eastern Canada. During the second half of the 19th century, a growing awareness on the part of all Acadians produces a desire for a society on a par with that of their English and French-Canadian fellow citizens. This, in turn, leads to a remarkable resurgence of this forsaken people, one that makes itself felt at all levels - social, economic, political, cultural and religious. The period in question becomes known as the Acadian Renaissance...'

Assyrian Voice. Portal for Assyrians, Chaldeans, Syriacs.

India's Subtle Sub-cultures.

Out Proud. Resources for queer and questioning youth.

16th October

Banned Books Online. 'Welcome to this special exhibit of books that have been the objects of censorship or censorship attempts. The books featured here, ranging from Ulysses to Little Red Riding Hood, have been selected from the indexes of The Online Books Page. (See that page for over 20,000 more online books!) ...'

Open Source Shakespeare. Search Shakespeare's works, read the texts.

From Heaven and Earth: Chinese Jade in Context.

Miles Beyond: The Electric Explorations of Miles Davis 1967-91. A jazz master's work.

MAD Magazine Covers.

LiveJournal's Schools Directory. LiveJournal blogs belonging to schools around the world.

The Worldwide Earthquake Locator.

History of Arizona.

The Falkland Islands. Official Falklands portal - one of the last bits of the British Empire.
'Welcome to the official website of the Falkland Islands. Through its pages, we hope to tell you about our history, our people and the wildlife with which we share these remote and beautiful islands in the South Atlantic. '

IslamiCity. Islam and the global Muslim community.

DefCon America. 'DefCon is an online grassroots movement combating the growing power of the religious right. We will fight for the separation of church and state, individual freedom, scientific progress, pluralism, and tolerance while respecting people of faith and their beliefs. '

All About Birds. ' Learn some of the secrets of bird identification using silhouettes, posture, flight pattern, size and habitat, in addition to key field marks...'

History of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London.

The American Civil War Homepage. Most extensive.
"...but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came." - Abraham Lincoln, 2nd Inaugural Address 4 March 1865.

The Traditions of Exemplary Women. Women in early China.
'This project focuses on the Lienü zhuan (Traditions of Exemplary Women) of Liu Xiang (77-6 B.C.), the earliest extant book in the Chinese tradition solely devoted to the moral education of women. The book consists of biographical accounts of female role models in early China and became the standard textbook for women's education for the next two millennia. The Lienü zhuan offers important insights into the culture, politics, and social structure of early China, as well as into the representation of women in various phases of China's history. '

Catholic Saints and Angels. Hagiography.

Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive.
'The Salem witchcraft events began in late February 1692 and lasted through April, 1693. All told, at least twenty-five people died: nineteen were executed by hanging, one was tortured to death, and at least five died in jail due to harsh conditions. Over 160 people were accused of witchcraft, most were jailed, and many deprived of property and legal rights. Accused persons lived in the town of Salem and Salem Village (now Danvers) and in two dozen other towns in eastern Massachusetts Bay Colony. Nearly fifty people confessed to witchcraft, most to save themselves from immediate trial...'

Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico.
'Chaco Culture National Historical Park preserves one of America's most significant and fascinating cultural and historic areas. '
'Chaco Canyon was a major center of ancestral Puebloan culture between AD 850 and 1250. It was a hub of ceremony, trade, and administration for the prehistoric Four Corners area - unlike anything before or since...'

The Poems of Sappho.
'The poet Sappho lived in the sixth century B.C. on the island of Lesbos, which is situated in the Northeastern Aegean. We do not know the exact date of her birth or death, but it has been suggested that she was alive from about 610 B.C to 570 B.C. Her family is known to have been wealthy merchants; Lesbos in the sixth century B.C. was very prosperous. That she lived a life of luxury, and loved beatiful clothes and ornaments is clear from several allusions in the fragments. In addition, it is known that women of Lesbos at this time were exceptionally liberated and moved freely in social and religious circles. Lesbos was the center of a flourishing school of lyric poetry. Some of the other Lesbian poets of this period were Terpander and Alcaeus, and there were several other women poets...'

Lichens of North America.

15th October

The Kabbalah or, The Religious Philosophy of the Hebrews.
'This is a scholarly study of the origin and evolution of the Kabbalah. Originally published in French in 1843, with a second French edition in 1889, this book traces the origins of the philosophical concepts of the Kabbalah to the ancient Zoroastrians. Franck goes into fascinating detail about the doctrine of the Kabbalah, as expressed in the Sepher Yetzirah and the Zohar. He uses internal evidence to trace the origins of these texts many centuries prior to their first known publication in the thirteenth century C.E.'

Buddhist Ceremonies and Funeral Rites for the Dead.

Carthusian Monks and Carthusian Nuns.

Ernst Mandel Internet Archive. Marxist writer and activist.
'He was born in Frankfurt, Germany in April 1923. His parents sought refuge in Belgium in the 1930s, settling in Antwerp. The Mandel home was a safe haven and centre for German political refugees, most often Trotskyists. Ernest's father, Henri Mandel, had been a member of the German CP, worked as a journalist for the Soviet Press Agency, and was a personal friend of Karl Radek, Lenin's emissary to the German party...'

The Island of Sark. "Small, sweet world of wave-encompassed wonder" - A C Swinburne.
'The Island of Sark is the smallest of the four major Channel Islands: Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark, but it enjoys a fame that is out of all proportion to its size. Although it has had a varied and eventful history, its widespread fame is derived from its scenic beauty and from its unique constitutional status as the smallest independent 'state' in the British Commonwealth, and perceived as the last bastion of feudalism in the western world.'

NASA Space Calendar. 'The Space Calendar covers space-related activities and anniversaries for the coming year. Included are over 1,500 links to related home pages. '

Miss Abigail's Time Warp Advice.
'Welcome! Take a step back in time as I pull out relevant quotes, tidbits, and words of wisdom from my collection of old advice books in a quest to solve your modern-day dilemmas. The books span from 1822 to 1978 and cover the age-old topics of dating, love, living together, marriage, health, beauty, puberty, sex, etiquette, housekeeping, home economics, and home repairs. I hope you enjoy your stay! '

Documents from the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, 1774-89.
'The Continental Congress Broadside Collection (253 titles) and the Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection (21 titles) contain 274 documents relating to the work of Congress and the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. Items include extracts of the journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations, committee reports, treaties, and early printed versions of the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Most broadsides are one page in length; others range from 1 to 28 pages. A number of these items contain manuscript annotations not recorded elsewhere that offer insight into the delicate process of creating consensus. In many cases, multiple copies bearing manuscript annotations are available to compare and contrast. '

Miller NAWSA Suffrage Scrapbooks, 1897-1911.
'Between 1897 and 1911 Elizabeth Smith Miller and her daughter, Anne Fitzhugh Miller, filled seven large scrapbooks with ephemera and memorabilia related to their work with women's suffrage. The Elizabeth Smith Miller and Anne Fitzhugh Miller scrapbooks are a part of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Collection in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division. These scrapbooks document the activities of the Geneva Political Equality Club, which the Millers founded in 1897, as well as efforts at the state, national, and international levels to win the vote for women. They offer a unique look at the political and social atmosphere of the time as well as chronicle the efforts of two women who were major participants in the suffrage movement. '

Remember the Alamo.
'In the early 1830s Texas was about to explode. Although ruled by Mexico, the region was home to more than 20,000 U.S. settlers agitated by what they saw as restrictive Mexican policies. Mexican officials, concerned with illegal trading and immigration, were prepared to fight hard to keep the province under their control. Caught in the middle were the area's 4,000 Mexican Texans or Tejanos.'
'With war on the horizon, the Tejanos had to pick a side. Many chose to fight with their Anglo neighbors against an army sent by Mexico City. The conflict pitted brother against brother and devastated the community. The Tejano gamble for a more prosperous future in an independent Texas proved tragic. Following the revolution, the Tejanos were overwhelmed by a surge of Anglo immigration -- leaving them foreigners in a land they had fought to defend. '

War Tax Resistance. A history, from the War Resisters' League.
'Up until World War II, war tax resistance in the U.S. primarily manifested itself among members of the historic peace churches - Quakers, Mennonites, and Brethren - and usually only during times of war. There has been instances of people refusing to pay taxes for war in virtually every American war, but it was not until World War II and the establishment of a permanent, centralized U.S. military (symbolized by the building of the Pentagon) was the modern war tax resistance movement born...'

Life in the Present has a new home.

Reflections in D Minor has a new home.

Creative Commons in Review: Lawrence Lessig on How it All Began. Lawrence Lessig on the history and future of the Creative Commons, an alternative, 'open source' model for intellectual property and intellectual sharing. Lessig proposed the concept of 'free culture', a concept uniquely suited to the way we can do things in the Internet age - open source knowledge and open source culture (think Perl, Linux), as opposed to the 'fenced off backyards' of traditional copyright. Copyright, whilst crucial to the development of our industrialised societies, when overused leads to a stifling of the free spread of ideas.
What is the Creative Commons? 'Too often the debate over creative control tends to the extremes. At one pole is a vision of total control - a world in which every last use of a work is regulated and in which "all rights reserved" (and then some) is the norm. At the other end is a vision of anarchy - a world in which creators enjoy a wide range of freedom but are left vulnerable to exploitation. Balance, compromise, and moderation - once the driving forces of a copyright system that valued innovation and protection equally - have become endangered species...Creative Commons is working to revive them. We use private rights to create public goods: creative works set free for certain uses. Like the free software and open-source movements, our ends are cooperative and community-minded, but our means are voluntary and libertarian. '
Who is Lawrence Lessig?
Alternative systems of intellectual property rights protection. 'Other informal systems of protection include the customary code of non-infringement used by clowns to recognise each performer's exclusive right to their unique style of makeup, costume and persona. The universality of "The Code" supports the belief amongst clowns that this traditional protection is more effective than that provided by trademark and copyright law. Nevertheless, clowns sometimes do seek the protection of "clown material" using intellectual property laws, perhaps against infringement by third parties outside the clown community.'
Patenting, genes and living organisms. Another issue related to intellectual property.


The Religious Policeman. 'The diary of a Saudi man, currently living in the United Kingdom, where the Religious Police no longer trouble him for the moment.'

Selected American Civil War Photographs. 'The Selected Civil War Photographs Collection contains 1,118 photographs. Most of the images were made under the supervision of Mathew B. Brady, and include scenes of military personnel, preparations for battle, and battle after-effects. The collection also includes portraits of both Confederate and Union officers, and a selection of enlisted men. '

Ibsen. Extensive site about the Norwegian playwright and poet.
'Henrik Ibsen (1828 - 1906) is one of the very greatest names in world literature. He was a central figure in the modern break-through in the intellectual life of Europe, and is considered the father of modern drama. His plays are still highly topical, and continue to be staged in all parts of the world. It is said that Ibsen is the most frequently performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare...'

The History of Radar.

John Snow: A Historical Giant in Epidemiology. He mapped epidemics in Victorian London.
Map of John Snow's London in 1859.
Father of epidemiology. '... In September of 1848, when Snow was thirty-five, a new outbreak of cholera struck London. He decided to track the progress of the disease. to see if he could determine exactly how it was spread. He learned that the first victim, John Harnold, a merchant seaman, had arrived from Hamburg by ship on September 22. Harnold had gone ashore and rented a room in the London community of Horsleydown where he had quickly developed cholera symptoms and died...'

Charles Booth and the Survey of Life and Labour in London 1886-1903. Poverty maps of London in the Victorian era.
'Charles Booth was one of those remarkable English Victorians who can justly be described as one of the great and the good. Profoundly concerned by contemporary social problems, and not a pious nor even a religious man, he recognised the limitations of philanthropy and conditional charity in addressing the poverty which scarred British society. Without any commission other than his own he devised, organised, and funded one of the most comprehensive and scientific social surveys of London life that had then been undertaken. Booth also added his voice to the cause of state old age pensions as a practical instrument of social policy to alleviate destitution in old age, established as one of the commonest causes of pauperism. Simultaneously he was a successful businessman, running international interests in the leather industry and a steam shipping line.'

Soulful Kinda Music. All about soul music.

About Chinese Food. Chinese recipes, cuisine, food and Chinese holidays, the history of chopsticks, etc.

The Food Timeline. World history of food.

New York City Attractions.