American Photographs: The First Century.
'American Photographs: The First Century presents a
wide-ranging selection of photographs from this
collection, including Civil War images by George
Barnard and the Mathew Brady Studio, spectacular
western landscapes by Timothy O'Sullivan and William
Henry Jackson, as well as Pictorialist scenes by
Clarence White and Gertrude Kasebier. A deliberate
effort has been made to mix familiar and lesser-known
photographers, styles of work, and a variety of
processes in order to explore ideas about the
influence of photographic culture in America during
the years from 1839 to 1939. '
Prints of Beautiful Women. Japanese
'The early twentieth century was a period of great
modernization and radical social change within Japan.
In particular, gender roles were being redefined.
While previously women had been limited to domestic
and family roles, they were starting to take jobs
outside the home and socialize freely with their
peers. Young women were beginning to define their
identities as individuals, separate from their
families. The active modern girl or moga was
replacing the submissive geisha as the prototypical
Japanese woman...' Moga,
Tokens and Treasures: Gifts to Twelve
'As the highest representative of the people and
government, the President accepts gifts on behalf of
the United States of America. The phenomenon, as old
as the Presidency itself, grows with each
administration: Today a President may receive 15,000
gifts a year. They come from every state in the nation
and every country in the world. Gifts from foreign
leaders continue a rich diplomatic tradition of
exchange between heads of state; those from citizens,
both Americans and others, symbolize an inherently
democratic exercise - ordinary people freely
addressing, in every manner and form, the President of
the United States. '
Introduction to Parliament.
'The Introduction to Parliament pages offer a brief
guide to the history, role and procedure of the UK
Parliament. They also provide links to some other
resources that are available on the Parliamentary
'The authorship of this book (by a Jesuit ethnologist)
makes some of the editorial content suspect. However,
the author spent time in the field in Jamaica. His
library research was extensive and used rare and
unique sources such as contemporary newspapers, legal
archives and early accounts. Williams keeps his
skepticism active while remaining open-minded. On the
downside there are some passages which could be
interpreted as racist (in hindsight), so the usual
disclaimers apply. ' Voodoos
'This companion book to Psychic Phenomena of Jamaica
goes into much greater depth as to the New
World-African connection, and adds more material about
Afro-Carribean religion in Haiti. The primary strength
of this work is the careful documentation of the
history and ethnography of Vodun. Williams includes
numerous quotes from rare documents and books on the
subject. The weakness is the lack of detailed
information about the religious system of Vodun, which
we now know to be as complicated (or more so) than any
of the major religions. There is scarcely any mention
of the loas, the pantheon of Vodun Gods and Goddesses,
and he misses the importance of possession during the
religious ceremonies. However, all things considered,
this is required reading if you want to understand the
background of Haitian and Jamaican Vodun, and the
profound influence of imperialism, slavery and racism
on its development'
Word on the Street - Broadsides
at the National Library of Scotland.
'In the centuries before there were newspapers and
24-hour news channels, the general public had to rely
on street literature to find out what was going on.
The most popular form of this for nearly 300 years was
'broadsides' - the tabloids of their day. Sometimes
pinned up on walls in houses and ale-houses, these
single sheets carried public notices, news, speeches
and songs that could be read (or sung) aloud.'
'The National Library of Scotland's online collection
of nearly 1,800 broadsides lets you see for yourself
what 'the word on the street' was in Scotland between
1650 and 1910. Crime, politics, romance, emigration,
humour, tragedy, royalty and superstitions - all these
and more are here.'
Dresden: Treasures from the Saxon State
'Founded in the thirteenth century, Dresden was the
seat of the Saxon monarchs beginning in the fifteenth
century and is currently the capital of the Free State
of Saxony. Situated on the Elbe River in eastern
Germany, Dresden played a pivotal role in the
Renaissance and Reformation in Europe and has been
called the "Florence of the North." '
'One of Dresden's outstanding cultural institutions is
the Sächsische Landesbibliothek (Saxon State Library),
founded in 1556 when Prince Elector Augustus (ruled
1553-1586) started systematically to acquire learned
books and literary works. This year the Saxon State
Library is celebrating its 440th anniversary. Its
treasures, collected over four centuries, were behind
the Iron Curtain between 1945 and 1990 and were
largely unknown to Americans. '
'During the first half of the eighteenth century,
under the rulers Augustus the Strong (ruled 1694-1733)
and his son, Augustus II (ruled 1733-1763), Saxony
reached the pinnacle of its cultural influence,
manifested in the city's spectacular Baroque
architecture. The city became a major European
cultural center, whose monarchs fostered the arts, and
made significant additions to its art, museum, and
library collections. During this period the Court
Library became a true state library for Saxony, adding
many manuscripts, maps, and books from distinguished
private collections. In 1727, the Library moved into
two wings of the Zwinger Palace. By the end of the
eighteenth century it had outgrown this location, and
it then moved to the Japanese Palace. The Royal
Library became a center of library science in the
nineteenth century, and following the proclamation of
the Weimar Republic in 1919, it officially became the
Saxon State Library. '
the course of its history, the U. S. Government has
prepared, commissioned, received, or approved designs
for millions of objects. From bridges to ships, from
forts to flags, from monuments to costumes, the
Federal Government has had a hand in the artistic and
utilitarian outcome of myriad projects. These designs
were created in fulfillment of a wide range of Federal
policies and programs. Each represents the
Government`s need for a rendering of an object. Most
were the inspiration of professional artists,
engineers, inventors, draftsmen, and graphic artists.
A few were submitted by citizens—amateur designers who
wanted to share their imaginative ideas with their
' "Designs for Democracy" is an exhibition of nearly
125 design drawings selected from the vast holdings of
the National Archives and Records Administration and
its Presidential Libraries. The designs, all
permanently valuable Federal records, were selected to
illustrate 200 years of Government drawings. They are
also works of art. Displayed here are elegant
watercolor paintings, exquisite ink and wash drawings,
bold charcoal and pencil sketches, and finely executed
engineering details. Some bear a well-known designer`s
or artist`s signature or the imprimatur of approving
Government officials, but many are unsigned and their
creators unknown. This exhibit is organized
chronologically to demonstrate changing styles and
technological advances, as well as to illustrate the
evolving role of the Federal Government in American
The Perfect Medium: Photography and the Occult.
'A unique characteristic of photography has always
been its ability to record the visible, material world
with truth and accuracy. Interestingly, advocates of
spiritism at the turn of the last century enlisted
photography to provide manifest proof of the
immaterial: emanations and auras; thoughts,
hallucinations, and dreams; or the spirits of the
deceased. Closer to the scientific revelations of the
X-ray (discovered in 1896) than to the double-exposure
parlor tricks of 1850s ghost photographs, the more
than 120 stunning and surprising works in this
exhibition reflect an attempt to reconcile the
physical and spiritual worlds.'
Night in Tunisia.
'Being that today is the birthdate of Dizzy Gillespie
and myself, I have decided to post my favorite jazz
composition of all-time: Night In Tunisia.
Perhaps it is too soon to have another Dizzy post but
you really can't go wrong with Dizzy. '
'This site hosts early 1900's postcards about japanese
ladies and geishas.
Take a stroll through our pages and enjoy the beauty
of traditional Japan! '
History of Produce Crate Labels.
'Growers first started using fruit and vegetable crate
labels in the late 19th century. Labels were glued on
the ends of wooden crates to identify the contents,
place or origin, and the packer's name. Packers made
an effort to display their produce with colorful and
attractive labels in order to generate more business
at the local market. These colorful labels were pasted
onto wooden crates and shipped all over the nation for
nearly 70 years. In the late 1950's labels were no
longer used because pre-printed boxes replaced the
older wooden crates. The leftover labels were gathered
up by collectors, dealers, and old orchard owners.
These unused labels make up the trading stock that
exists today. And, they are getting scarce!'
CRIS. Thanks, Bernard.
'We are a research and training programme of the United Nations University that is
driven by the following questions:
'Question 1: What is happening in the world - Past, present and future - with regard to
regional integration processes?
'Question 2: What governance structures are emerging through regional integration?
'Question 3: How can regional integration contribute to peace and human security in the framework
of the UN?
'Question 4: How can regional integration contribute to the development of LDCs?
'Question 5: How do people and societies deal with regional integration?'
'Indian statesman Gopalakrishna Gokhale once said --
"..what Bengal thinks today, India thinks tomorrow!"
This is true in more ways than one; the Bengalis have
led India in many fronts. It was division of Bengal in
1905 that started India's freedom struggle and
another in 1947 terminated it. Philosophers such as
Arabindo, and Swami Vivekananda have influenced
Indian thought and ways of life. Bengali geniuses have
enriched Indian literature, science and arts. Bengal
is the the epitome of India's values and heritage as
it is of India's problems and aspirations. Social
revolutions like Naxal and Communism first took roots
in India here, so did their problems they caused. A
land of extreme poverty and pollution, what makes
Bengal still thrive? What makes India thrive ?' Interview
with a boy
'Kazimir Malevich, also Kasimir (1878-1935) was a
Russian avant-garde painter, the founder and leading
artist of the Suprematist movement, and one of
Russia's best-known modern painters...'
Chow. A fine and distinguished
gallery of rations for the curiously famished.
'All the food products featured are real. Most were
purchased in the strange food section of the
supermarket, ethnic groceries, or at the dollar store.
We here at KookyChow.com know that many of you
probably eat some of the food items featured here. The
intent is not to dissuade you from eating them, or to
make fun of those of you who do. Hey, we've been known
to serve stew over cheese puffs in the KookyChow
cafeteria. There's nothing wrong with eating food that
other people find absurd. In fact, there's a big
difference between absurd food, and bad food. Absurd
food is a good thing. Bad food is, well..., not good.'
Years of Latin American Portraits.
'Latin America has a long and rich tradition of
portraiture. In its countries, as elsewhere, portraits
have preserved the likeness of individuals both living
and dead, bolstered the social standing of the
aristocracy, marked the deeds of the mighty, recorded
rites of passage, and established and preserved the
historical record. Portraits have also connected the
individual to the family and the family to the
community, bound together disparate populations, and
helped establish national identity. Portraiture
provides valuable insights into the lives and minds of
the artist and the sitter, as well as their time and
Building the Alaska Highway.
'In May of 1942, across the rugged sub-Arctic
wilderness of Alaska, British Columbia, and Yukon
Territory, thousands of American soldiers began one
of the biggest and most difficult construction
projects ever undertaken -- the building of the
Alaska Highway. '
'The United States had toyed for 80 years with the
idea of building a road link from the lower 48 states
to Alaska; but it was the Japanese attack on Pearl
Harbor that spurred Washington into action. Worried
that the Japanese might invade Alaska, President
Franklin Roosevelt directed that a supply line be
built to U.S military bases in the region.
' 'Interweaving interviews with the men who were
there, archival footage and beautiful cinematography
of the sub-Arctic route the road took, American
Experience: Building the Alaska Highway tells how for
eight months, young soldiers, some of whom had never
left the southern United States before, battled mud,
muskeg, and mosquitoes; endured ice, snow, and bitter
cold; bridged raging rivers, graded lofty peaks, and
cut pathways through primeval forests to push a
1,520-mile road across one of the world's harshest
In Cold Blood: A Legacy.
'For almost 40 years, the first words of Truman Capote's "In Cold Blood"
have been most people's introduction to a town that seems wholly
unremarkable on the surface. It seems an ordinary town for western
Kansas-except for what's down a little dirt lane on the southwest
edge of town. A day shy of 45 years ago, two released convicts made
their way here and changed the town irrevocably...'
'... As with many forms of wrestling around the world, the roots of Sumo
are lost in prehistory. Sumo is mentioned in some of the earliest texts
in Japan, under its earlier name Sumai, from the 8th century A.D.
However, these early forms would not be Sumo as it is known today,
as in many cases the wrestling had relatively few rules and unarmed
fights to the death were still referred to as 'Sumo'...'
The Ottoman Empire
'was an imperial power, centered around the borders of the Mediterranean
Sea, that existed from 1299 to 1922. At the height of its power in the
16th century, it included Anatolia, the Middle East, parts of North
Africa, much of south-eastern Europe to the Caucasus in the north...'
Anti-War. An overview and history of modern
anti-war movements, with links.
'The history of the anti-war stance in literature and society dates
back in modern terms to the American Civil War, which culminated in the
candidacy of George McClellan for President of the United States as a
"Peace Democrat" against incumbent President Abraham Lincoln.
The outlines of the anti-war stance are seen: the argument that the
costs of maintaining the present conflict are not worth the gains
which can be made, the appeal to end the horrors of war, and the argument
that war is being profitted from by particular interests. After the war
the Red Badge of Courage presented the chaos and sense of death which
hovers over the style of combat which was growing in importance: away
from the set engagement, and towards two armies engaging in continuous
combat over a wide area. With the increasing mechanization of war, the
stance in opposition to the horrors of war grew, particularly in the
wake of the First World War...'
Global protests against war on Iraq, 2003
Chinese-American Teens Look at Ancestor Worship
'Chinese traditions of ancestor worship continue today. The Sackler's
Education Department asked a team of Chinese-American teenagers to look
within their own communities for contemporary examples of ancestor
worship. Highlights of their research are presented here. '
History of Blackface.
'Blackface is a style of theatrical makeup from the United States used
to affect the countenance of an iconic, racist, American archetype, that
of the "darky" or "coon". Blackface also refers to a genre of musical
and comedic theatrical presentation in which blackface makeup is worn.
White blackface performers in the past used burnt cork and, later,
greasepaint to affect jet-black skin and exaggerated lips, often wearing
woolly wigs, gloves, tails, or ragged clothes to complete the
transformation. Later, black artists also performed in blackface...'
The Federalist Papers.
'Written between the fall of 1787 and the spring of 1788 by Alexander
Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym 'Publius', the
Federalist Papers were published in various New York newspapers to
secure ratification of the newly drafted Constitution. They remain an
invaluable resource in understanding the Constitution and the foundation
of our democracy...'
(From the site of the Speaker of the House
Konkani Heritage. All about the Konkani culture
History of the Konkani language.
'Due to the tumultuous events, the Konkani community (called the
Konkanis henceforth) has fragmented and spread throughout the west
coast of India. Their language, Konkani had to suffer the same
indignation. The Marathi community called it a dialect of Marathi and
did not recognize it. The Konkani language did not receive the respect
or status it deserved and it resulted in lack of literature or patronage
of the language...'
' "Hey Jude" is a song attributed to Paul McCartney and John Lennon (but
largely the work of McCartney). It was originally recorded by The
Beatles for the self-titled The Beatles album, but released instead as a
single. The song, despite its unusual length of 7 minutes, 11 seconds on
the original 45 rpm version, became the Beatles' best-selling
History of The Beatles.
"You have built this church in stone, not in
order to pass on to distant generations the
memory of the glories of France, but because
you understand that there is something greater
than man's glory, more lasting than stone..."
Names of the Greeks.
'Today the Greeks call themselves Hellenes, though they have been
known by a number of different names throughout history... '
Reports on Psychochemical Weapons.
'On this page, we're posting military reports on chemical weapons designed
to interfere with the central nervous system of targets, causing
hallucinations, detachment, psychosis, and/or loss of motor control...'
FBI Research Reports on the Nation of Islam.
'In "Selected Titles of FBI Research Reports, 1953-60," we listed
several-dozen research reports that the FBI had written for internal
use in the mid-1900s. The Memory Hole requested some of them under the
Freedom of Information Act. Upon review, the FBI has released the two
reports on the Nation of Islam. We've scanned and posted them above.
They're based on often obscure public-source documents, internal NOI
literature, and confidential material, such as informants and FBI
' "Imperial London" by Arthur H. Beavan was first published in 1901. It
narrates the history of London from earliest times, from the Celtic and
Roman periods, through the Plantagenet and Tudor ages, up to the
Victorian era. Great seminal events such as the Fire of London are
included. This adds up to a fascinating and unique view of a great city
from a 1900 perspective... '
Beyond the Fall: The Former Soviet Bloc in
'For 10 years following the collapse of the Berlin Wall, TIME contract
photographer Anthony Suau has traveled the lands of the former Soviet
bloc. In the hundreds of powerful images and audio commentaries that
follow, Suau documents in stark detail the people of that region as they
shed their former skin and head into an unknown future. '
'Thomas Nast was a staunch Abraham Lincoln supporter, defender of the
Union Cause in the Civil War, and strong opponent to Slavery. Nast used
his art to show the Nation a picture of how things could be. He created
the artwork below on the topic of Slavery, in the days that Slavery was
still a thriving institution in our land. Thomas Nast's dramatic
illustrations helped our Nation understand the moral outrage of slavery.
The images capture the important events related to Slavery in the
1860's. The collection below contains all Slavery Artwork created by
Thomas Nast during the Civil War years. '
Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions.
'Imagine a vast sheet of paper on which straight Lines, Triangles,
Squares, Pentagons, Hexagons, and other figures, instead of remaining
fixed in their places, move freely about, on or in the surface, but
without the power of rising above or sinking below it, very much like
shadows -- only hard with luminous edges -- and you will then have a
pretty correct notion of my country and countrymen. Alas, a few years
ago, I should have said "my universe": but now my mind has been opened
to higher views of things...'
Then and Now.
'In 1979, The Auschwitz Museum Archive reproduced selected pieces of art
and sent them to writer/photographer Alan Jacobs.
After years of related work and many more trips, Jacobs, and his son
Jesse, returned to the camps in 1996 to find and photograph the
identical scenes depicted in the art. Krysia Jacobs then devised a way
to present them as you see here. They are the result of work over a 24
year period. '
'This exhibit contrasts contemporary photographs of these two camps,
with images of what they were like 1940-45 as remembered by artist-
survivors. Much of the art was created soon after their liberation.
Their art is the only visual record of day-to-day existence in
Histories of the British port cities
of London, Southampton, Liverpool,
Bristol and Hartlepool.
Cave as Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship Along the
Ancient Silk Routes.
'Buddhism reached Chinese Central Asia (modern Xinjiang) from India
around the first century A.D., brought by missionaries via the ancient
Silk Routes. By the third century A.D., this new religion was
flourishing in all the oasis kingdoms in the Tarim Basin (the Taklamakan
Desert), also known as eastern Turkestan. As the Buddhist religion took
hold and piety increased, the Indian tradition of excavating caves to
serve as Buddhist sanctuaries proliferated in this region. In many of
the Central Asian states, monasteries and temples were hewn out of the
cliffs in secluded river valleys. With the patronage of local rulers,
the elite, and wealthy merchants, these institutions gradually became
major Buddhist centers. They continued to grow and prosper until the
advent of Islam. Today, such Buddhist rock-cut cave complexes are some
of the finest, if little known, monuments preserved in Chinese Central
Puja: Expressions of Hindu Devotion.
'Hindu worship known as puja is the act of showing reverence to a god or
to aspects of the divine. This online guide for educators offers
background information, activities, a bibliography and a resource list
about puja. '
'This site complements the award-winning exhibition Puja: Expressions of
Hindu Devotion that was on exhibition at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery,
the national museum of Asian art at the Smithsonian. '
The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden.
'Now that the Revolutionary War was over, and independence from Britain
had been won, what would the United States do with their freedom? The
Declaration of Independence acted as a guide to the values that the new
American government should embrace, yet the form that the government
would take was still unclear...'
America on the Move.
'See how we got here. Transportation transformed America. Choose from
these three interconnected
routes to explore how transportation shaped our lives, landscapes,
culture, and communities. '
Geography of Race in the US.
'This website explores the spatial distribution of racial groups in the
United States, its historical and contemporary causes, and its
consequences for racial inequality. Location matters for one's access to
many goods: decent housing, employment opportunities, voting power,
education, low-cost public services, a clean environment, connections to
influential people. Managing the spatial distribution of racial groups
has therefore been a key tool for controlling who gets access to these
goods. This website focuses on the role of government and laws in
constructing the spacial distribution of racial groups, although some
attention is also paid to private sector actions. The interactive maps
and other information contained in this site reveal several dimensions
of this process.'
'Polish Declarations of Admiration and Friendship for the United States is
a presentation of the first 13 manuscript volumes of a larger collection
of 111 volumes compiled in Poland in 1926 and delivered to President
Calvin Coolidge at the White House to honor the 150th anniversary of the
Declaration of Independence. Richly illustrated with original works by
prominent Polish graphic artists, the collection includes the greetings
and signatures of national, provincial, and local government officials,
representatives of religious, social, business, academic, and military
institutions, and approximately 5 1/2 million school children. This
searchable online presentation is a complete facsimile of the six
oversized presentation volumes and the seven volumes of secondary school
'Inuit carvings produced in Canada's Northwest Territories, Northern
Quebec and Labrador, are carved from local stone, weathered and fossilized
whalebone, ivory and antler. The most widely known medium is soapstone or
steatite, which varies in colour and markings from a soft medium grey to
black to various shades of green. Carvers initially rough out the block of
carving stone with axes, hammers and chisels, or small power tools. Then
they use files, rasps and sandpaper for finishing.'
'The subject matter reflects the artist's deep connection to the hauntingly
beautiful Arctic land and its landscape, flora and fauna. Over time,
regional styles have developed depending on the local stone and on
prominent carvers who have left a lasting influence on their
'This site, which documents the history of pre-IBM PCs, is a tribute to
the work of Stan Veit, a pioneer of personal computing. '
Trade Card Place.
'For all who are interested in
Victorian Trade Cards used to
advertise American goods and
services during the late 1800s.'
Japanese Erotica. Don't click on this at work.
'Unusual sexual fantasies are certainly common in the world of Japanese
manga and anime. And popular adult anime (sometimes referred to as hentai)
such as "La Blue Girl," "Imma Youjo: Erotic Temptress" and "Twin Angels"
can be found on the Web as well as in video stores in major American
'This is volume I of Alexander Carmichael's collection of folk poetry
from the Western Isles of Scotland. Carmichael spent years collecting
folklore from the vanishing cultures of Scotland. The poems in this
volume include prayers, invocations, blessings and charms. They are
a synthesis of Christian and pre-Christian belief systems. Besides
invoking Jesus, Mary, and the saints, a number of these call on other
powers. One of these is 'Bride,' who is explained as Jesus' midwife, but
who is probably Brigid, an ancient Celtic goddess. Also mentioned
throughout are a triune deity which is equated to the Christian Trinity,
but which may also be an echo of a set of three pagan deities. The text
includes notes on seasonal observances and folk customs which are
probably likewise survivals of pre-Christian customs. All of these are
woven into the cycles of the year, and activities such as weaving, fishing
and herding. A vivid picture of life in pre-modern rural Scotland
The Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library.
'The Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library is an international community
using Web-based technologies to integrate diverse knowledge about Tibet
and the Himalayas for free access from around the world.'
'The archipelago of St Kilda, the remotest part of the British Isles,
lies 41 miles (66 kilometres) west of Benbecula in Scotland's Outer
Hebrides. Its islands with their exceptional cliffs and sea stacs, form
the most important seabird breeding station in north-west Europe. The
evacuation of its native population in 1930 brought to a close an
extraordinary story of survival.'
The Wandering Host, 1904.
'This is an allegorical tale about the search for spiritual meaning.
Jordan was the first President of Stanford University. This etext was
scanned from an copy published in 1904, in an edition with artwork
reminiscent of the "Arts and Crafts" style originated by William
Anna Louise Strong (1885-1970) Reference Archive.
'Daughter of a Nebraskan missionary and pastor of the Congregational
Church, Strong was a gifted child and had earned a PhD in philosophy
at the University of Chicago by the age of 23. She came to public
attention as an advocate for child welfare, touring an exhibition
exposing child poverty throughout the US and overseas.'
'In 1916, Strong was a journalist for the New York Evening Post
reporting on the Everett Massacre, a conflict in which the IWW was
involved, and thereafter Strong became a socialist and advocate for labor.
She opposed US participation in the First World War as a pacifist. After
the October Revolution, Strong became a prominent advocate of the young
Soviet government in the liberal press.'
Household Words: Women Write From and For the
'The Esther B. Aresty Rare Book Collection on the Culinary Arts comprises
cookery manuscripts and published books of recipes, etiquette and
household advice. Spanning an historical period from the earliest printed
folios of the fifteenth century to the more recent and familiar volumes of
the twentieth century, the books represent cultural and geographical
diversity ranging from Europe and the New World to the Far East.'
'The Aresty Collection's abundance of literature for, by, and about women
provides us with an opportunity to explore, reconstruct, and imagine the
domestic lives of women. The exhibition celebrates women's
accomplishments in these genres: some who achieved prominence and fame
and others who did not but who read as well as wrote cookery books and
other household manuals. The books, written by authors of diverse
backgrounds, were directed toward women whose labor--both paid and
unpaid--had consequences for entire households. Thus they learned how to
prepare foods, medicines, and other domestic necessities for their
families' survival. Engaged in this form of vernacular writing, authors
and readers alike became skilled in far more than household tasks,
enriching their own and others' lives.'
Japanese Historical Maps.
'When the University of California at Berkeley purchased the Mitsui
Library from the Mitsui family in1949, included among the 100,000
items was a collection of 2,298 maps which had been assembled by Mitsui
Takakata (penname: Soken) (1882-1950), the 9th head of the Shinmachi
branch of the family. The most unusual part of the collection is the 697
woodblock-print maps (and a few dozen manuscript maps) dating from the
Tokugawa period (1600-1867)...'
Cyfwe - Welsh Literature in Translation.
'Cyfwe is a website for Welsh literature in translation. Its name is
composed of two Welsh elements, cyf from cyfieithu (the same as trans
in translate), and (g)we, 'web'. It represents our aim to open up the
riches of Welsh literature to a worldwide audience through the Web. '
'"Layla" is the title track on the Derek and the Dominos album Layla
and Other Assorted Love Songs, released in December of 1970. It is
considered one of rock music's definitive love songs, featuring an
unmistakable guitar figure, played by Eric Clapton and Duane Allman,
as lead-in. Its famously contrasting movements were composed
separately by Clapton and Jim Gordon, similar to the combination of
fragments John Lennon and Paul McCartney used to create "A Day In The
Life". Clapton was inspired to write the piece by his burning unrequited
love for Pattie Boyd, the wife of his friend George Harrison.'
Historic Sites of Los Angeles.
'The following are some of the many historic sites in Los Angeles and
surrounding areas. For convenience they are arranged by area within the
Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate.
'Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) has become the strongest symbol of non-
violence in the 20th century. It is widely held - in retrospect - that
the Indian national leader should have been the very man to be selected
for the Nobel Peace Prize. He was nominated several times, but was never
awarded the prize. Why?...'
Best Fish Guide.
'Like seafood? So do we.
And we like to know that our seafood choice is the best one we can make
for a healthy marine environment.
Our oceans are in crisis.
We need to make better choices.
By using the Best Fish Guide we can. '
'Japan Focus is an electronic journal and archive chronicling Japan and
the Asia-Pacific in global perspective, encompassing politics,
economics, society, history, culture, international relations, war and
peace, and historical memory. In addition to Japan Focus exclusives, it
presents translations from Japanese and other languages as well as
reprints of important texts. Japan Focus draws on the writings of
researchers, journalists, policy analysts and writers throughout Asia
and the Pacific, North America, Europe and Australia. Its fully indexed
website provides a permanent resource for researchers on the Asia-
The Jerome K.
'Jerome Klapka Jerome, best known as the author of 'Three Men in a
Boat', one of the great comic masterpieces of the English language, was
born in Walsall, Staffordshire, on 2nd May 1859, the youngest of four
'His father, who had interests in the local coal and iron industries and
was a prominent non-conformist preacher, had moved to the town in 1855
and installed the family in a fashionable middle class house in Bradford
Street where they lived in comparative comfort until 1861. Following the
collapse of the family business, the Jeromes moved first to Stourbridge
and thence to Poplar in the East End of London where he was brought up
in relative poverty...'
The Doris Ulmann Photograph Collection.
'Doris Ulmann (1882-1934) was born and educated in New York City. A
graduate of the school of the Ethical Culture Society, a socially
liberal organization that championed individual worth regardless of
ethnic background or economic condition, Ulmann documented the rural
people of the South, particularly the mountain peoples of Appalachia and
the Gullahs of the Sea Islands, with a profound respect for her sitters
and an ethnographer's eye for culture. Ulmann was assisted on her rural
travels by John Jacob Niles, a musician and folklorist. Trained as a
pictorialist by Clarence White, Ulmann's early work includes a series of
portraits of prominent intellectuals, artists and writers: William
Butler Yeats, John Dewey, Max Eastman, Sinclair Lewis, Lewis Mumford,
Joseph Wood Krutch, Martha Graham, Anna Pavlova, Paul Robeson, and
'Welcome to Drayton Hall, a National Trust historic site in Charleston,
South Carolina. Completed in 1742, the historic plantation house stands
majestically on a 630-acre site and is one of the finest examples of
Georgian-Palladian architecture in America. Through seven generations of
Drayton family ownership, the plantation house has remained in nearly
original condition and offers an opportunity to experience history, to
imagine the people-white and black-who lived and worked in a far
Andrew Jackson Speaks: Indian Removal Policy.
'Passed into law during Jackson's second year as President, this Act set
the tone for his administration's handling of all Indian affairs. In
fact, Removal outlasted his tenure: the last of the Cherokee were
infamously forced on the Trail of Tears death march in 1838, two years
after Jackson's second--and final--term ended. '
'Though all Eastern tribes were eventually relocated West of the
Mississippi, the government failed utterly in its pledge to enact the
policy on a strictly voluntary basis (a policy notably not written into
the act.) Nearly all relocation was carried out under duress, whether by
military escort, or when no other option remained after tribal
decimation by broken treaties, fraudulent land deals and the wars these
Auschwitz and Birkenau.
'When visiting this exhibition, please honor and respect the memory of
who suffered and died in these concentration camps,
as well as in all other camps during World War II. '
Underground structures, Napoleonic, WWII and Cold War fortifications
'Undergroundkent is not just one person nor a organisation, we are
a group of people who are interested in underground exploration.
The pictures on this site were taken not just by me but others in
the group as well.'
Conveys an Emotion.
'Welcome to Eric Conveys an Emotion. Glad you could make it. The concept
here is simple, this is a humor-oriented interactive website. You request
an emotion (or reasonable facsimile), and I will try and act it out for
you. The frame on the left shows the currently filled emotions. The list
in the right frame shows requests that are waiting to be filled. Sure, so
some of these may not be emotions per se, we're just having fun here.
So what are you waiting for? '
19th Century Photography of Ancient Greece.
'19th-century Photography of Ancient Greece illustrates approximately
200 nineteenth- and early twentieth-century photographs of ancient Greek
and Roman architecture. Focusing on Greece, Asia Minor, the Aegean
islands, Cyprus, South Italy, and Sicily, these images belong to the
Getty Research Institute's Gary Edwards Collection. The majority of the
photographs are of Athens, particularly the Athenian Acropolis. In
addition, separate pages of this website are devoted to ancient monuments
elsewhere in Athens, selected site views in Greece and throughout the
Mediterranean, and ancient sculpture. '
The Neolithic Monument Complex of
Thornborough, North Yorkshire.
'The low-lying Vale of Mowbray, which lies between the central Pennines
and the Hambleton Hills, is the location for a remarkable concentration
of Neolithic monuments. This includes no less than six large henges,
which are all almost identical in their size and design, located within
10kms of each other. They are the largest such sites outside the Wessex
'The significance of this area is emphasised by the existence of other
nearby monuments. Immediately to the south of the Vale of Mowbray lies
the imposing stone settings of the Devil's Arrows, while to the north
is the cursus at Scorton. '
"Agents Wanted": A
Brief History of Subscription Publishing
'Nineteenth-century America saw the rise of a new kind of subscription
publishing and a new approach to marketing. Once a relatively genteel
means of seeking financial support for an expensive publication project
with uncertain sales prospects, subscription bookselling expanded during
the nineteenth century into a door-to-door solicitation of commitments to
purchase particular titles not just prior to publication, as had been the
case with earlier subscription ventures, but at any point in the
publication process. This uniquely American publishing phenomenon grew
out of a confluence of economic circumstances and opportunities...'
Robert Montgomery Bird: Writer and Artist.
'Robert Montgomery Bird (1805/6-1854) was a writer of considerable note.
Born in New Castle, Delaware, one hundred and ninety years ago (February
5, 1805 or 1806), he was raised there and in Philadelphia, and entered
the University of Pennsylvania in 1824. He graduated from Penn's Medical
School and College of Pharmacy in 1827. As a medical student, he was
active in literary societies and as a fledgling playwright.'
'He practiced medicine for a year after graduation, giving it up
in order to write. By 1830, Edwin Forrest, the greatest American
tragic actor and theatrical impresario of the era, had accepted
one of his plays. For the next seven years, Dr. Bird wrote for Forrest
while also publishing poetry, fiction, and essays. In 1837, he broke
with Forrest, became editor of the American Monthly Magazine, and married
Mary Mayer. Their son, Frederick Mayer Bird, was born a bit more than a
The Kingdom of Bhutan
'is a landlocked South Asian nation situated between India and China.The
landscape ranges from the subtropical plains to the Himalayan heights,
an elevation gain of more than 7000 m.
Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture (emphasizing corn and
rice) and animal husbandry. Small, terraced farms predominate...'
White Trash: The Construction of an American
'Equality is simultaneously the greatest accomplishment and worst
failure of America. It is the place where idealism and reality come to
blows in American culture. Despite the glossy veneer of "political
correctness" which has been painted over the rust and corrosion of
centuries of racism and classism, the enduring American necessity for a
social "other" has chosen working class whites as the focal scapegoat of
our time. This site explores the general treatment of working class
whites in the media -- comics, literature, film and television; dealing
in depth with the areas of religion, race relations, work and lifestyle
in defining working class whites as a unique social culture.'
The Hornet: The Horn of Africa's Electronic Information
Exchange. Articles from 1994-2004.
'The Hornet, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, is a free computer networking
service established in early 1994 to promote the exchange of information
in and on the Horn of Africa using electronic communications. Services
available using FIDOnet technology include file transfer, electronic
conferencing, mailing lists, databases and personal messaging. Users
include academics, government and non-governmental organizations, UN
agencies, businesses and diplomats. The Hornet is based at the Pan
African Development Information System of the UN Economic Commission
for Africa. Our logo (for the time being...) shows an Ethiopian postman,
around 1935, carrying a letter in a cleft stick. '
Back Issues of the Harvard Law Bulletin. Wide
selection of interesting articles on legal matters.
A tribute to Justice William J. Brennan. (1997)
'Through his 1,360 opinions-many of them masterpieces of reason
and craftsmanship-Justice Brennan played the pivotal role in changing
all that, building an enduring edifice of common sense and uncommon
wisdom that transformed the landscape of America. If Chief Justice John
Marshall was the chief architect of a powerful national government,
then Justice William Brennan was the principal architect of the nation's
system for protecting individual rights. Intellect alone could never have
achieved so much, though Brennan's intellectual brilliance and analytical
acumen were indispensable. What drove him were passion and compassion,
insight and empathy, and a dream of a Constitution of, by, and for the
The World of Dante.
'The World of Dante offers a hypermedia environment for the study of
the Inferno. This project is designed to appeal to the different purposes
of a wide range of readers, not simply those with scholarly interests.
This version of the Inferno is generated by software from a densely
encoded electronic text. Unlike other versions of the poem presently
online, this copy of the Inferno has been tagged using SGML (Standard
Generalized Markup Language). Translating poetry into markup entails
certain compromises, but we hope that any perceived loss of meaning
will be offset by the possibilities the project offers its users to
navigate through a considerable amount of data, and to connect this
information, or parts of it, in complex ways...'
Map of Dante's Hell.
Greek Medicine from the Gods to Galen.
'Many foundations of modern Western medicine lie in Classical Greece,
from about 800 B.C.E. to about 200 C.E. During this period, Greek
medicine departed from the divine and mystical and moved toward
observation and logical reasoning. These ideas spread throughout the
Mediterranean world and as far east as India, and their influence has
remained strong in the West to this day...'
Buddhist Sutras from the Ida B. Wells Memorial
'These Sutras and Suttas are a gift of Dharma to the entire planet,
and can be copied and distributed both electronically and physically,
free of charge regardless of the translator and without prior
notification to the Ida B. Wells Memorial Sutra Library. '
World Audit Democracy.
Countries of the world ranked by levels of
press freedom, and lack of corruption.
'This is the tenth world audit report of the millennium, in which we
re-examine the prevalence of public corruption, the state of human
rights, political rights, free speech and the rule of law in 150
nations (all those exceeding one million population). By reference
to these we compile the world democracy table with its subsidiary
statistical tables. We recommend that readers check out our
(button on left hand sidewalk of democracy table) to make the most
sense of these results and the commentary below.'
'We find the term democracy being misused by people who should know
better, particularly in the current middle-east context, as merely the
opportunity to register a vote. Without others of the key criteria
enumerated here, we maintain that to be rather meaningless. If it doesn't
offer genuine accountability - coupled with the ability "to throw the
rascals out", it's not democracy...'
United States Antarctic Resource Center.
'The U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC) at the U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS), Reston,Va., maintains the Nation's most comprehensive
collection of Antarctic maps, charts, satellite images, and photographs
produced by the United States and other member nations of the Scientific
Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). The USARC holdings include maps
and charts from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, China,
Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Russia, South Africa,
Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Uruguay. '
'Anti-Slavery International, founded in 1839, is the world's oldest international human rights
organisation and the only charity in the United Kingdom to work exclusively against slavery and
'Anti-Slavery International's work has produced real change. Throughout the
last century, the organisation was involved in many successful campaigns,
such as those to stop the abuse of rubber workers in the Belgian Congo and
the use of child slaves -- Mui Tsai -- in Hong Kong. In the 21st century,
our success continues...'
Nature in Chinese Culture. Art.
'In no other cultural tradition has nature played a more important role in the arts than in that of China. Since
China's earliest dynastic period, real and imagined creatures of the earth-serpents, bovines, cicadas, and
dragons-were endowed with special attributes, as revealed by their depiction on ritual bronze vessels.
In the Chinese imagination, mountains were also imbued since ancient times with sacred power as manifestations
of nature's vital energy (qi). They not only attracted the rain clouds that watered the farmer's crops, they also
concealed medicinal herbs, magical fruits, and alchemical minerals that held the promise of longevity.
Mountains pierced by caves and grottoes were viewed as gateways to other realms—"cave heavens"
(dongtian) leading to Daoist paradises where aging is arrested and inhabitants live in harmony...'
Antonio Gramsci 1891-1937. Italian socialist
writer, philosopher and political prisoner under Mussolini.
'Gramsci's political and social writings occur in two periods, pre-
prison (1910-1926) and prison (1929-35). His pre-prison writings tend
to be politically specific, while his prison writings tend to be more
historical and theoretical.'
The Much Wenlock Olympian Society. The Olympic
'Penny Brookes, again in 1841, founded the Agricultural Reading Society. This early kind of
lending library was established ' for the promotion and diffusion of useful information '.
He wrote to many titled and famous people, such as the Duke of Wellington and Abraham
Darby, most of whom responded by sending donations and books. - see the accompanying
Agricultural Reading Society web page.'
'From the society evolved various classes including the Art, Philharmonic and Botany classes.
In 1850 he formed the Wenlock Olympian Class.'
'The first Games, held in October 1850, were a mixture of athletics and
also traditional country sports such as quoits, football and cricket.
These early Games sometimes included a ' fun' event; once a wheelbarrow
race, another year an old woman's race for a pound of tea, these events
were not usually a part of the general programme...'
The Southern Homefront 1861-65.
' "The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865," presents documents related to all
aspects of Southern life during the Civil War. In particular, government
and civilian publications demonstrate the Confederate States of
America's unsuccessful attempt to create a viable nation state. This
collection includes over four hundred Civil War era maps, broadsides,
photographs, printed works, Confederate currency, and manuscript letters
Ralph Waldo Emerson Collection.
'1803-82, American poet and essayist, b. Boston. Through his essays,
poems, and lectures, Emerson established himself as a leading spokesman
of transcendentalism and as a major figure in American literature.'
"He thought it happier to be dead, / To die for Beauty, than live for
Blore Heath 1459.
'Blore Heath is a small area of farmland close to the Staffordshire,
Shropshire and Cheshire borders, in the northwest midlands of
'In 1459, it was the site of one of the bloodiest battles of the Wars
of the Roses.'
'This website is an online resource dedicated to events at Blore Heath,
past and present. '
iPod Subway Maps.
'Simply put, I decided that it'd be pretty cool to build this website
so you can put subway maps onto your iPod Photo. As I write this,
I've only got one city up so far - well, almost. I skipped Staten
Island. Do people actually ride that subway?'
'Eventually I'd like to open the site up to allow other visitors to
submit their own maps. One step at a time, though.'
Dreams of Space. Space art in children's
books 1950s to 1970s.
'With the discoveries by Robert Goddard and Hermann Oberth of
liquid-fueled rockets in the 1930's and the use of V-2 rockets in the
1940's, rocket travel went from science fiction to science fact in the
public's mind. In post-World War II America anything seemed possible,
even going to the Moon! There appeared in 1949, a book The Conquest of
Space , which led to a new trend in children's books. These books outlined
the future the children of the "baby boom" would grow up in, the world of
space (example). The illustrations in these books show facts (as they
were known) mixed in with the fantasy of space flight and led many of the
readers of these books to "dream of space"...'
Jonah on the Web.
Everything about Jonah and the whale.
'Welcome to Jonah on the Web, an annotated guide to the story of Jonah,
in faith, art and culture, from the Bible to today. The site includes an
organized and annotated list of over 200 articles, pages and sites and
over 150 pictures.'
Sun Yat-sen. Biography.
'Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 - March 12, 1925) was a Chinese
revolutionary leader who had a significant role in the overthrow
of the Qing Dynasty. A founder of the Kuomintang, Sun was the first
provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.
He developed a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of
the People which still heavily influences Chinese governments today...'
The Itinerary of Archbishop Baldwin Through Wales.
'Gerald the Welshman - Giraldus Cambrensis - was born, probably in
1147, at Manorbier Castle in the county of Pembroke. His father was
a Norman noble, William de Barri, who took his name from the little
island of Barry off the coast of Glamorgan. His mother, Angharad, was
the daughter of Gerald de Windsor by his wife, the famous Princess Nesta,
the "Helen of Wales," and the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr, the
last independent Prince of South Wales...'
Rogers Park/West Ridge Historical Society.
'The mission of the Society is to gather and preserve the history of
Rogers Park and West Ridge as a vital part of the City of Chicago, thus
placing local history in its larger context, and to provide interactive
education about those communities to the public.'
Anarchist Communism in Britain.
'In this article we take a look at the development of Anarchist
Communism in Britain since the late 19th century. In the first
section we deal with the early days of the Socialist League and of
William Morris. In the second part we look at the grouping around
Sylvia Pankhurst and at the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation
and Guy Aldred. In the third part we look at the groupings of the 70s,
the Organisation of Revolutionary Anarchists, the Anarchist Workers
Association, the Anarchist Communist Association and the Libertarian
Communist Group. '