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10th January

Snowflakes and Snow Crystals. 'This site is all about snow crystals and snowflakes -- what they are, where they come from, and just how these remarkably complex and beautiful structures are created, quite literally, out of thin air. '

Mission Churches of the Sonoran Desert.

Hillbilly Music: Source and Symbol. 'Hillbilly Music brings together stories, sounds and images of country folk music as it developed from oral tradition to recorded style in the 1920s.'

Kuan Yin, the Compassionate Rebel.

The Whole Brain Atlas.

American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-1915.
'A decade after Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness first depicted the mysteries and agonies of the area, Herbert Lang and James Chapin set sail for the northeastern Belgian Congo. They knew they were launching an extraordinary adventure, but they could not have imagined what those years would hold. By the time they sailed home five and a half years later, they had collected tons of precious zoological and anthropological specimens representing one of the most comprehensive collections of the day...'

African American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel P. Murray Collection 1818-1907.
'The Daniel A. P. Murray Pamphlet Collection presents a panoramic and eclectic review of African-American history and culture, spanning almost one hundred years from the early nineteenth through the early twentieth centuries, with the bulk of the material published between 1875 and 1900. Among the authors represented are Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Benjamin W. Arnett, Alexander Crummel, and Emanuel Love. '

UK National Inventory of War Memorials.
'Search the records of war memorials commemorating all wars located throughout the United Kingdom. They range from familiar community crosses and statues to less common memorials like bus shelters, sundials, park benches and even an island.'

Soviet Life.
'In October 1956, the Soviet and US Governments agreed to allow each other to publish a magazine in their own nation, but limited circulation to 30,000 copies per issue. The Soviet Government published a magazine entitled The USSR, while the US Government published Amerika. '
'Soviet Life was generally not a political magazine, in the sense that it rarely delved into the political issues of the day, nor did it talk about political theory, etc. Instead it focused on Soviet culture (including national minorities), science, education and health care. The last issue of Soviet Life was published on December, 1991. '

Vietnam Tourism.

Hindu Mysticism, 1927.

Alice White. Silent movie star. Online galleries.

Works of Charles Fort.
'Charles Fort was a crank in the best sense of the word. Lovecraft and the X-files can't begin to compete with the spooky stuff he uncovered. In the early twentieth century he put together great quantities of exhaustively documented 'puzzling evidence' (in the words of David Byrne), data which science is unable or unwilling to explain. Forts' books gave me nightmares when I read them when I was seven. Strange items drop from the sky, bizarre artifacts turn up in unexpected places, stars violate the laws of astronomy, giant clouds blot out the moon and the sun trembles in the sky. Is the world inside out? Is it flat? Or maybe shaped like a giant spindle?'
'What does it all mean? He drops cryptic, breathless hints such as "I think we're property." and "I think that we're fished for. It may be that we're highly esteemed by super-epicures somewhere." Whatever you think about this information, you will at some point while reading Forts' books feel like the foundations of your reality are slipping slightly to the south...'

Marine Ornithology. Journal of seabird science and conservation.

1492: An Ongoing Voyage.
'1492. Columbus. The date and the name provoke many questions related to the linking of very different parts of the world, the Western Hemisphere and the Mediterranean. What was life like in those areas before 1492? What spurred European expansion? How did European, African and American peoples react to each other? What were some of the immediate results of these contacts?'

Abandoned Missile Base VR Tour. 'This presentation will take you on a full tour of a decommissioned, abandoned underground missile complex. The site was opened many years ago by explorers and vandals, and in fact the technology therein was nearly obsolete by the time the bases were completed in 1963, so there's little "secret" about it beyond the location of these sites, which we will not reveal here.'

The Jazz Server.

Ponzo's Illusion.

Rembrandt at the National Gallery, London.

9th January

Wisconsin Local History and Biography Articles. 'Welcome to Wisconsin Local History & Biography Articles, where you'll find thousands of historical newspaper articles on Wisconsin people and communities. '

The Project Apollo Archive. 'The Project Apollo Archive serves as an online reference source and repository of digital images pertaining to the historic manned lunar landing program. '

John & Abigail Adams.
'Relying heavily on the extraordinary correspondence between the second president and his wife, this joint biography sheds light not only on the characters of two remarkable people, but also on the tumultuous times through which they lived.'
'John and Abigail Adams played a critical role in many of the pivotal events of their era: he was a vociferous participant at the Continental Congress; she was an important eyewitness reporter during the Siege of Boston; he was an important wartime emissary to France. In the post-war era, first as vice president, then as president, Adams was caught up in the increasing political divisiveness that characterized the 1790s when rifts in the country almost pulled the fledgling nation apart...'

African Art Now: Masterpieces from the Jean Pigozzi Collection.

Slavery in New York. 'For most of its history, New York has been the largest, most diverse, and most economically ambitious city in the nation. No place on earth has welcomed human enterprise more warmly. New York was also, paradoxically, the capital of American slavery for more than two centuries. In October, 2005, The New-York Historical Society begins an unprecedented two-year exploration of this largely unknown chapter of the city's story. '

Unrealised Moscow. The Moscow that was never built.
'Moscow architecture from the 1930s to the early 1950s undoubtedly occupies a central place in domestic construction of the socialist epoch. Its specific nature and scope is the most outstanding illustration of the socialist Utopia in architecture. This period saw the work of the greatest Soviet architects; B. Icfan, A. Schusev, I. Zholtovsky, the Vesnin brothers, I. Fomin, L. Rudnev, I. Golosov, V. Schuko. Among the far-reaching projections of the first stalinist "five year plans", the 1935 General plan for the reconstruction of Moscow overshadowed all others. According to this plan, Moscow was to become, in the shortest possible time, the showpiece capital of the world's first socialist state...'

Fra Angelico. Art.
'The life of Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, baptized as Guido di Piero (born around 1395 in Vicchio di Mugello, died in Rome in 1455) is the stuff of legend. "Angelic" was how he came to be known soon after his death; the name "Beato" was a comment on his painting and not a reference to his beatification, which happened only recently, in 1984...'

Osaka Prints. 'We specialize in kamigata-e, original 18th-19th century Japanese woodblock prints from Osaka and the surrounding region. Our inventory is comprehensive and always changing, with a broad range of artists and prices.'

Alvin Lustig: Modern American Design Pioneer.
'Alvin Lustig's contributions to the design of books and book jackets, magazines, interiors, and textiles as well as his teachings would have made him a credible candidate for the AIGA Lifetime Achievement award when he was alive. By the time he died at the age of forty in 1955, he had already introduced principles of Modern art to graphic design that have had a long-term influence on contemporary practice. He was in the vanguard of a relatively small group who fervently, indeed religiously, believed in the curative power of good design when applied to all aspects of American life. He was a generalist, and yet in the specific media in which he excelled he established standards that are viable today...'

Black Ink Monday. From December 2005.
'The Association of American Editorial Cartoonists (AAEC) has responded to recent cartoonist job losses by asking their members to draw cartoons in protest. Monday December 12 is "Black Ink Monday" when the cartoons are posted. '

In Memory of the Miners. Editorial cartoons about the West Virginia mining disaster.

Airships Online.
'Inside you will find an extensive history relating to all of the British Airships from 1900 to the present day. The OnLine-Forum is open to to offer comment and share in news and knowledge between members and the public who share in the interest of lighter than air travel. The Trust is a charitable voluntary run organisation based in the U.K. We own and are responsible for the national heritage airship archive and large collection of airship artifact's and photographs relating to the British Airship Programme, from it's early days at the turn of the century to the Skyships of the 1980's. '

India's Street Culture. 'India's streets are truly a melting pot of her culture. Indians take to streets on all important festive occasions, whether they are celebrating a wedding, a victory, or a religious event. For a large number of poor Indians, indeed, the streets are the stage where the drama of their entire life unfolds.'

The Felix Morrow Internet Archive.
'Felix Morrow was for many years a leading figure figure in American Trotskyism, best known for his classic *Revolution and Counter-Revolution In Spain*. He joined the Communist League of America in 1933 and after Max Shachtman's minority split in 1940, served as editor of the Socialist Workers Party's paper, the *Militant*, and its theoretical journal, *Fourth International*. He was one of 18 SWP leaders imprisoned under the Smith Act during the Second World War. In 1943 he formed a faction with Albert Goldman which challenged the SWP's 'orthodox' catastrophic perspective...'

7th January

The Kentucky Highlands Project.
'Welcome to the Kentucky Highlands Project. It is our mission to record, preserve, and promote the culture and history of the eastern Kentucky Highlands. This site is the first stage in what will become a fully integrated organization dedicated to the unique heritage of the Appalachian Kentucky hill folk. '

Japanese Prints: The Dutch in Nagasaki.
'This is a digital exhibition of a collection of 40 Japanese woodblock prints published between 1800 and 1865, depicting Dutch traders in Nagasaki. Now extremely rare, at the time of their publication the prints were sold as souvenirs to Japanese who visited Nagasaki and perhaps hoped to catch a glimpse of these strange 'red-haired barbarians'.'

Art & Optics.
'This web site discusses a startling new theory being advanced by world renowned artist David Hockney, working in collaboration with University of Arizona physicist Charles Falco, to the effect that, as far back as the 1420s, Master Painters in the High Tradition were deploying optical devices to render lifelike images of people and their surroundings. This web site brings together Hockney, Falco, and their principal supporters and skeptics among art and science historians, critics, scientists and painters for the first full public airing of their views.'

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Collision with Jupiter.
'On 1994 July 16-22, over twenty fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with the planet Jupiter. The comet, discovered the previous year by astronomers Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker and David Levy, was observed by astronomers at hundreds of observatories around the world as it crashed into Jupiter's southern hemisphere. This Web site is here to provide some of the images taken by amateur and professional astronomers before, during, and after the events, and to provide more information on this historic event.'

Historical Maps of the World.

The African-American Mosaic.
'A noteworthy and singular publication, the Mosaic is the first Library- wide resource guide to the institution's African- American collections. Covering the nearly 500 years of the black experience in the Western hemisphere, the Mosaic surveys the full range size, and variety of the Library's collections, including books, periodicals, prints, photographs, music, film, and recorded sound.'

The Robert Johnson Notebooks. Blues.
'On November 23, 1936, Robert Johnson recorded his songs for the first time in San Antonio, Texas. This first of two sessions was unceremoniously squeezed between W. Lee O'Daniel & His Hillbilly Boys the day before, and Hermanas Baraza con Guitarras the day after. Yet out of this modest recording session, after which Robert Johnson collected his money and disappeared again into the Mississippi Delta, came a powerful and unique sound which forever changed music in America. '

Rolled Palm Leaf Manuscripts in Nepal.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
'Originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great, approximately A.D. 890, and subsequently maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the middle of the 12th Century. The original language is Anglo-Saxon (Old English), but later entries are essentially Middle English in tone.'
'Translation by Rev. James Ingram (London, 1823), with additional readings from the translation of Dr. J.A. Giles (London, 1847).'

The History of Herodotus.
'Herodotus (484-ca. 425 BCE), the 'Father of History,' wrote this account of the ephocal conflict between the Greeks and Persians between 430 and 424 BCE. The title of the work, 'Historie' means 'Inquiry.' Subsequently it became the name of the science of history, and via Latin passed into other languages including English. '

The Way of Power: Studies in the Occult, 1928.

Nancy Carroll. Silent movie star. Online galleries.

The Canadian Pacific Railway, from Sea to Sea: The Scottish Connection.
'The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1880-85) is one of the great heroic narratives of Canadian history. The contributions of Scottish Canadians to the "national dream", are major. In October 1880, five entrepreneurs, four of them Scots, formed a syndicate to build the railway, raising $2 million of the first $5 million required to get the project underway. Over the next five years, the syndicate worked tirelessly, surmounting enormous difficulties to push the project through.'

The Dirty Thirties.
'Images of the Great Depression in Canada include breadlines, relief camps, protest marches and dust storms sweeping over the western plains. The underlying reality is as stark as the images. During the downswing that begins shortly before the stock-market crash in 1929 and ends in the spring of 1933, national income falls by almost half. The recovery is uneven and ends in a renewed slump in 1937. Only the war that begins in September 1939 brings full recovery.'

Art from Oaxaca, Mexico.
'Long renowned as a center for folk art production, the mountainous southern Mexico state of Oaxaca has a growing reputation for the fine arts as well. Birthplace of the late master Rufino Tamayo, Oaxaca has also produced such leading Mexican artists as Francisco Toledo, Rodolfo Nieto and Rodolfo Morales. But it is the vitality of the younger generation of Oaxaca artists, such as Enrique Flores, Leovigildo Martinez, Fernando Olivera, and Carlomagno Pedro that has led critics to identify a distinct Oaxaca School of Mexican art. Oaxacan art draws its strength from native Indian culture, myths and legends. It is suffused with "magic realism" a folk surrealism in which people fly and mysterious juxtapositions are the norm. As poet Alberto Blanco has written, the artists of Oaxaca "all tend to depict one theme: the appearance in our history of another time and place. A space within another space. A time within another time." '

Meltdown at Three Mile Island.
'At 4:00 AM on March 28, 1979, a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power facility near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania suddenly overheated, releasing radioactive gases. During the ensuing tension-packed week, scientists scrambled to prevent the nightmare of a meltdown, officials rushed in to calm public fears, and thousands of residents fled to emergency shelters. Equipment failure, human error, and bad luck would conspire to create America's worst nuclear accident...'

Himalayan Art: Collection of Rainy Jin & Johnny Bai.
'An Asian collection of Himalayan art more than 200 hundred in number comprised of full size paintings with brocade, miniature paintings, and initiation cards. These works span the broad geographic regions of Eastern Tibet, Mongolia and Siberia.'

Polish Literature in English Translation.


5th January

Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.
'The Tres Riches Heures is _the_ classic example of a medieval book of hours. This was a collection of the text for each liturgical hour of the day - hence the name - which often included other, supplementary, texts. Calendars, prayers, psalms and masses for certain holy days were commonly included. '
'The pictures in this directory are from the calendar section of the Tres Riches Heures. This was painted some time between 1412 and 1416 and is arguably the most beautiful part of the manuscript; it is certainly the best known, being one of the great art treasures of France. In terms of historical and cultural importance, it is certainly equal to more famous works such as the Mona Lisa, marking the pinnacle of the art of manuscript illumination. '

The John and Ruby Lomax 1939 Southern States Recording Trip 'is a multiformat ethnographic field collection that includes nearly 700 sound recordings, as well as fieldnotes, dust jackets, and other manuscripts documenting a three-month, 6,502-mile trip through the southern United States. Beginning in Port Aransas, Texas, on March 31, 1939, and ending at the Library of Congress on June 14, 1939, John Avery Lomax, Honorary Consultant and Curator of the Archive of American Folk Song (now the Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center), and his wife, Ruby Terrill Lomax, recorded approximately 25 hours of folk music from more than 300 performers. These recordings represent a broad spectrum of traditional musical styles, including ballads, blues, children's songs, cowboy songs, fiddle tunes, field hollers, lullabies, play-party songs, religious dramas, spirituals, and work songs. '

Zen Koans.
'These koans, or parables, were translated into English from a book called the Shaseki-shu (Collection of Stone and Sand), written late in the thirteenth century by the Japanese Zen teacher Muju (the "non-dweller"), and from anecdotes of Zen monks taken from various books published in Japan around the turn of the 20th century. '

Dyson Sphere FAQ.
'The Dyson sphere (or Dyson shell) was originally proposed in 1959 by the astronomer Freeman Dyson in "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation" in Science as a way for an advanced civilisation to utilise all of the energy radiated by their sun. It is an artificial sphere the size of an planetary orbit. The sphere would consist of a shell of solar collectors or habitats around the star, so that all (or at least a significant amount) energy will hit a receiving surface where it can be used. This would create a huge living space and gather enormous amounts of energy...'

Ancient Manuscripts from the Desert Libraries of Timbuktu.
'Timbuktu, Mali, is the legendary city founded as a commercial center in West Africa nine hundred years ago. Dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries, the ancient manuscripts presented in this exhibition cover every aspect of human endeavor and are indicative of the high level of civilization attained by West Africans during the Middle Ages.'

Arts of Korea.
'The Metropolitan Museum's collection of Korean works of art is among the finest outside Asia, reflecting not only the Korean art tradition but also its reception and appreciation in the West. Due to the vicissitudes of history, extant examples of Korean art of outstanding quality are rare, a situation that has resulted in Western scholars' relative lack of emphasis on, and therefore knowledge of, the Korean art tradition in comparison to that of other East Asian countries. '

Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library & Renaissance Culture.
'Traditionally, Pope Nicholas V (1447-55) has been regarded as the founder of the Vatican Library, but in the past twenty-five years Sixtus IV (1471-84) has come to be assigned that role. According to recent research, chiefly that of Josť Ruysschaert, lately vice- prefect of the Vatican Library, it was indeed Nicholas V who conceived the idea of a public or "Vatican" library, as distinct, that is, from a purely papal or private one, but it was Sixtus IV who actually put flesh on the idea. To be effective, the argument runs, an installation such as a library needs a place, order, and organization. It was precisely Sixtus IV who supplied these, first in theory in his bull Ad decorem of 1475, then in practice between 1475 and 1481, when the redoubtable Bartolomeo Platina was his librarian...'

The Water-Babies: Illustrations by Jesse Willcox Smith.
The large, lavish drawings Jessie Willcox Smith produced as color plates for The Water-Babies in 1916 are among her most loved and admired works. She apparently thought highly of them as well because upon her death in 1935 she bequeathed all twelve to the Cabinet of American Illustration, a special collection of almost four thousand original drawings by the nation's most influential illustrators, preserved within the Prints and Photographs Division. Her works evoking the innocence of youth and demonstrating the artistry of illustrated books are among the Library's great graphic treasures.'

The Official Site of Humphrey Bogart.
'From the time he decided to pursue acting, Humphrey Bogart was committed to the art. In the more than 80 films spanning his career, he was never once late to the set or unprepared for his lines. He held a deep respect for actors who were serious about their performances, and was professional in every aspect of his own career. '
' "[Bogart] achieved class through his integrity and his devotion to what he thought was right," said friend Nathaniel Benchley in his biography, Humphrey Bogart. "He believed in being direct, simple, and honest, all on his own terms, and this ruffled some people and endeared him to others." '

Rising Slowly - The UK Weather Blog. Thanks, SB.

On Being a Scientist: A Personal View, by John C. Polanyi, Nobel chemistry laureate 1986.
'Science never gives up searching for truth, since it never claims to have achieved it. It is civilizing because it puts truth ahead of all else, including personal interests. These are grand claims, but so is the enterprise in which scientists share. How do we encourage the civilizing effects of science? First, we have to understand science.'

The Stokely Carmichael Page.
'On April 19, 1967, Stokely Carmichael spoke to an enthusiastic crowd at Garfield High School in Seattle, Washington. A leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and later the Black Panthers, Carmichael coined the phrase "Black Power" and in this speech discussed the relationships between language, identity, and power. '

Saint Augustine. "The spiritual virtue of a sacrament is like light,-although it passes among the impure, it is not polluted."

Frida Kahlo. Art.

Atlas of Antarctic Research.

Fossil Sites of Australia.

The Many Faces of Lord Ganesh.
'The internationally acclaimed novelist Shashi Tharoor takes us to the land of Indian gods and goddessess where Lord Ganesh reigns as the beloved of not only his parents, Lord Shiva and Parvati but millions and millions of people.'
'The remover of all obstacles and bestower of wishes, he is worshipped in myriad expressions of form and material -wood, terracotta, bronze, clay, silver and stone. He is easily recognized by his elephant-head and curving trunk resting over his enormous belly.'

15 Ancient Greek Heroes from Plutarch's 'Lives'.
'The Lives is a massive (over 800,000 words) collection of Greek and Roman statesmen and commanders. No matter how interesting any book this thick might be, it would daunt the resolve of most modern readers. Some smaller collections of full-text lives, grouped by historical theme, have recently been published in English, but these suffer from what most candid modern readers would consider to be defects in the full text of Plutarch, such as long, complicated sentences, tedious details, difficult allusions, and distracting digressions. So precious is Plutarch to the professional custodians of the classical tradition that every jot and tittle has been reverently preserved in currently available English translations...'

The City of Split and Diocletian's Palace.

4th January

Pentland-Salcido Family: A Sonoran Family History.
'Bienvenidos. In the latter part of the 19th century Walter Pentland, an amateur photographer and mining engineer, worked in Mexico. Pentland, the son of a Scotish dentist who moved his family to Prescott, Arizona, in the 1850's, worked at mines throughout Mexico during his career. His career took him to Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, and Sonora...'

'The Incunabula Collection of The Bancroft Library comprises more than 430 titles printed before 1501. The word "incunabula" is Latin for "swaddling clothes," as these books are from the infancy of European printing, typeset and printed by hand from moveable type. Incunabula reflect the transitional phase between the manuscript and print traditions. '

The Mystery of Toshusai Sharaku.
'Welcome to The Mystery of Toshusai Sharaku, a website devoted to the enigmatic Japanese artist of the late 18th century. Appearing on the Japanese art scene in Spring of 1794, he disappeared just as suddenly in early 1795 after creating nearly 150 prints of Kabuki actors. Many conjectures have been made to illuminate the identity of this artist -- Was he a Noh drama actor? Was he actually another artist named Utamaro using a different name? Or was he someone completely different? -- At this point, no one really knows.'

GLIMPSE: The Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire. Many astro images.

Diego Velazquez. Comprehensive online art gallery.

Eleanor Roosevelt.
'Eleanor Roosevelt struggled to overcome an unhappy childhood, betrayal in her marriage, a controlling mother-in-law, and gripping depressions-all the while staying true to her passion for social justice. This biography includes rare home movies, contemporary footage, and reflections from Eleanor's closest surviving relatives, as well as biographers Blanche Wiesen Cook, Allida Black, and Geoffrey C. Ward, bringing to vibrant life one of the century's most influential women. '

The Vinland Map. Real or fake?
'In the early 1960s, something called the "Vinland map" was uncovered. It became famous because it proved that Vikings came to America before Columbus. It seemed to be a map of the North Atlantic as drawn from Scandinavian discoveries between 800 and 1100 CE, well before western Europe's great Age of Exploration that began in 1400. It was announced by Yale University in the early 1960s, receiving much fanfare, and much skepticism...'

The Gutenberg Bible at the Ransom Center.
'The Gutenberg Bible, the first book printed with movable type, is one of the greatest treasures in the Ransom Center's collections. It was printed at Johann Gutenberg's shop in Mainz, Germany and completed in 1454 or 1455. The Center's Bible was acquired in 1978 and is one of only five complete examples in the United States...'

Creating French Culture: Treasures of the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.
'Throughout French history the powerful have sought to harness culture to their own ends. They understood that the representation of power-- what today we call "image"--is a form of power itself. They patronized artists, artisans, and intellectuals who produced works that proclaimed the legitimacy of their rule, reinforced their authority, and enhanced their prestige. At times, they stifled creative impulses incompatible with their ambition. The relationship between power--or politics--and culture in French history is thus an ambivalent one, defined as much by conflict and censorship as by cooperation and patronage...'

Godey's Lady's Book.
'Welcome to Godey's Lady's Book Online. Godey's Lady's Book was one of the most popular lady's books of the 19th century. Each issue contained poetry, beautiful engraving and articles by some of the most well known authors in America.'

Language of the Land: Journeys into Literary America.
'From Robert Frost's New England farms to John Steinbeck's California valleys to Eudora Welty's Mississippi Delta, American authors have shaped our view of America's regional landscapes in all their astonishing variety. They have created unforgettable characters, inseparably identified with the territory they inhabit. The Yearling's wandering in the Florida woods, Paul Bunyan and Babe the Blue Ox's exploits in the dark northern pines, Huckleberry Finn and Jim's adventures on the Mississippi River, and the Joad family's exhausting trek to California have become an enduring part of the American imagination. Language of the Land uses the metaphor of a journey to tour this rich literary heritage through maps, the words of authors, images of characters, and photographs. '

Incarnation Lineage: Dalai Lama. Tibetan art.
'Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588) was the first to bear the title Dalai Lama, a line of successively re-incarnating teachers in Tibetan Buddhism. Gedun Drub and Gedun Gyatso, referred to as the first and second Dalai Lamas, were posthumously recognized as his predecessors. It was the 5th Dalai Lama, also known as the Great 5th, Ngagwang Lobzang Gyatso (1617-1682) that unified Tibet once again into a powerful empire and established the Ganden Podrang Government. The successive Dalai Lamas have been the Heads of State since the time of the Great 5th. Depictions of the Dalai Lamas can be recognized by the iconographic characteristics of a white lotus flower held in the right hand and a yellow Pandita hat, an attribute also shared with Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelugpa school...'

Days of Cal : A Virtual Tour Through the University of California, Berkeley's History.

The Zora Neale Hurston Plays.
'Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960), the author of the ten plays (with co- authors Langston Hughes on Mule-Bone and Dorothy Waring on Polk County), deposited these scripts with the United States Copyright Office in 1925, 1930, 1931, 1935 and 1944 in order to protect their copyrights and to place copies in trust with the government. Because none of the plays' copyrights was renewed during the twenty-eighth year, as required by the then-operative copyright law, all eventually fell into the public domain in the versions deposited. Revisions or other versions of these plays held in other repositories or in private hands, or later published, may still be under copyright protection. '
'Included in the group presented here are four very short plays (sketches or skits) and six full-length plays. Most are light-hearted if not outright comedies, and several include song lyrics without the associated music. Hurston knew the songs and the subjects of these plays from her own upbringing and her professional folklore research in the African-American South. She identified as her hometown Eatonville, Florida, the first African-American incorporated township. During the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, Hurston traveled the American South collecting and recording the sounds and songs of her people, while her research in Haiti is reflected in the voodoo scenes and beliefs woven into several of the plays. '

Vril, The Power of the Coming Race, by Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1871.
'Legendary for his turgid prose ("it was a dark and stormy night...") Bulwer-Lytton's pioneering science fiction novel "Vril" was taken very seriously by 19th Century Atlantis fans (for instance, Scott-Elliot). Vril is a mysterious energy which is used by Lytton's subterranian race (refugees from the Deluge) to power their advanced civilization; it was later treated as a reality by occultists. The plot of this book was recycled for numerous 'B' pulp scifi movies and assorted crank theories. '

Seven Warning Signs of Bogus Science.
'Should NASA invest nearly a million dollars in an obscure Russian scientist's antigravity machine (it has failed every test and would violate the most fundamental laws of nature)? Should the Patent and Trademark Office have issued Patent 6,362,718 for a physically impossible motionless electromagnetic generator (which is supposed to snatch free energy from a vacuum)?'
'There is, alas, no scientific claim so preposterous that a scientist cannot be found to vouch for it. And many such claims end up in a court of law after they have cost some gullible person or corporation a lot of money. How are juries to evaluate them?'
'How can you recognize questionable scientific claims? What are the warning signs of fraud? Here are seven indicators that a scientific claim lies well outside the bounds of rational scientific discourse. Of course, they are only warning signs -- even a claim with several of the signs could be legitimate...'

Romance Reader at Heart. About romance novels.

The Columbus Navigation Homepage: Examining the History, Navigation, and Landfall of Christopher Columbus.

History of Hinduism.

3rd January

New England Lighthouses.

Ming Dynasty Art.
'The last of the outstanding dynasties, the Ming was vibrant during its first half but racked with internal discord during its second. Scores of workers constructed the renowned Forbidden City, an imperial palace of staggering proportions and opulence. Ming leaders revived a sense of cultural identity and respect for traditional artifacts and craftsmanship. For example, bronze incense burners resembling those of the Shang and Chou dynasties were cast, and bright green and gold ceramic funerary objects recalled the T'ang. Three distinct schools of painting emerged: the Che echoed the formal approach of the Sung; the Wu consisted of, and appealed to, the intelligentsia; and the Eccentric fostered spontaneity and freedom of expression.'

The Book of Margery Kempe.
'Written probably in the late 1430s, The Book of Margery Kempe is one of the most astonishing documents of late medieval English life. Its protagonist, who represents herself as its ultmate author, was not simply a woman but a woman thoroughly rooted in the world. She evinces the manners and the tastes neither of the court nor of the nunnery, but the piety, the culture, the profit-oriented values, and the status- consciousness of the late medieval town. As a member of the powerful guild of the Holy Trinity in the prosperous East Anglian town of Bishops Lynn, Margery Kempe wrote from a secure position within the very world she subjects to such careful scrutiny. Kempe examines the fundamental conflicts and tensions of that world by describing Margery's gradual and voluntary movement away from worldly prestige. Margery's disengagement from conventional female roles and duties - and consequently her daring rejection of the values of her fellow townspersons - is a response to her growing commitment to her spiritual vocation. Her attempt to gain personal, financial, and spiritual autonomy is a tale of radical reversal that touches us on many different levels. Margery does what very few are able finally to do, and the fact that she does so as a woman enhances the force of her story - she breaks away...'

The Website of Unknowing. 'Celebrating the Lives and Writings of the Medieval English Mystics'

Voices of Civil Rights.
'The exhibition Voices of Civil Rights documents events during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. This exhibition draws from the thousands of personal stories, oral histories, and photographs collected by the "Voices of Civil Rights" project, a collaborative effort of AARP, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR), and the Library of Congress, and marks the arrival of these materials in the Library's collection. '

WebElements Periodic Table. Wonderful guide to the chemical elements.

Sacred Texts: Mars. 'In the early years of the twentieth century Percivel Lowell and others speculated that Mars was inhabitated by an intelligent species much older than our civilization. This page archives texts (fictional and otherwise) about this hypothesis. '
The Planet Mars and its Inhabitants By Eros Urides (A Martian), 1922.
The War of the Worlds, by H.G. Wells, 1898.
The War of the Worlds, by Orson Welles/ Mercury Theatre, 1938. 'Ladies and gentlemen, we interrupt our program of dance music to bring you a special bulletin from the Intercontinental Radio News. At twenty minutes before eight, central time, Professor Farrell of the Mount Jennings Observatory, Chicago, Illinois, reports observing several explosions of incandescent gas, occurring at regular intervals on the planet Mars. The spectroscope indicates the gas to be hydrogen and moving towards the earth with enormous velocity....'

Oceanic Mythology, 1916. Illustrated.
'The myths and tales in this volume have been gathered from all parts of Oceania, and it may be wise, therefore, at the outset to indicate just what area is included in our survey; to sketch very briefly the character of the peoples and the environment in which they live; and to state the general plan and purpose of the book...'
Map of Pacific cultural areas.

The Maurice Thorez Internet Archive. French Communist.
'Thorez went to work in the coal mines at the age of 12 and joined the French Socialist Party in 1919, but soon after, joined the Communist Party, and became the party's Secretary General during the "third period" in 1930...'

Renaissance Dante in Print. 'This exhibition presents Renaissance editions of Dante's Divine Comedy from the John A. Zahm, C.S.C., Dante Collection at the University of Notre Dame, together with selected treasures from The Newberry Library. '

Hilda Doolittle (H.D) 1886-1961. American poet.
'Having rejected Victorian norms for modern experiments, H. D. repeatedly launched out from instructors found among the early canonized male modernists. She developed new lyric, mythic, and mystical forms in poetry and prose, and an alternative bisexual lifestyle that were little appreciated until the 1980s...'

Monkey Trial. 'In 1925, a biology teacher named John Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution in defiance of Tennessee state law. His trial became an epic event of the twentieth century, a debate over free speech that spiraled into an all-out duel between science and religion.'

Shanghai Diaries.

Aztecs. Everyday life, technology, religion and culture. A good school site.

Manet: Le Dejeuner sur L'Herbe.

Digger History. An unofficial history of the Australian and New Zealand armed services.

History of Sikhism.

Wolfie Kodesh - A Resistance Man. An ANC obituary from 2002.
'Wolfie Kodesh, stalwart of the African National Congress and SACP passed away in hospital in Cape Town on Friday 18 October, aged 84 years. His hospital bed was next to a window overlooking one of his beloved areas, the Bokaap, where in the 1940s he campaigned for improved sanitation and refuse removal, while selling the Guardian newspaper...'

Partners of the Heart. 'In 1944, two men at Johns Hopkins University Hospital pioneered a groundbreaking procedure that would save thousands of so-called blue babies' lives. One of them, Alfred Blalock, was a prominent white surgeon. The other, Vivien Thomas, was an African American with a high school education. Partners of the Heart tells the inspiring, little-known story of their collaboration.'

1st January

Nature of the Beast: Animals in Japanese Paintings and Prints.

Survey of Las Vegas Strip Neon.
'In the summer of 2002, the Neon Museum commissioned a survey of the neon signs of the Las Vegas Strip corridor from Sunset to Sahara. This survey was designed to capture the artistic and historical significance of one of Las Vegas's most well-known art forms, neon.'
'This exhibition is designed to publicize the results of this survey. Within it, you can learn more about the Neon Museum, read a detailed explanation of the survey, look at the glossary of neon sign terms, or view the actual data sheets for the 80 signs that line the Las Vegas Strip and were documented in this survey.'

The Maria Theresa Thaler 1780. One of the world's famous coins.
'Originally struck in Austria from 1740 to 1780, the Thaler was the currency of the Austrian Empire. It was very important for trade with the Levant (parts of Turkey, Lebanon, Syria). Over time, the Maria Theresa Thaler became the best known and most popular silver coin in the Arabian world.'

Jackson Pollock. "On the floor I am more at ease, I feel nearer, more a part of the painting, since this way I can walk around in it, work from the four sides and be literally `in' the painting. "

Royal Barges of Thailand.

Graphic City: Bogota. Art on the street.

Patriots' Day.
'It's been over two and a quarter centuries since local American militias routed the British at the Battle of Lexington and Concord, but 65 men of his Majesty's 10th Regiment and 67 American rebels are still fighting.'
'American Experience takes a look at who they are and what has taken them on their personal journeys into the American past.'

Purple Mountain Majesty: Sublime Nature in the US Capitol. Nature and the American consciousness.

Forest Peoples. Supporting the rights of indigenous forest peoples worldwide.

Taoist Texts, 1884.
'This is a small selection of varied texts from the Taoist Canon, including yet another translation of the Tao Te Ching. As intimated in the subtitle, some of the books relate to ethics, some to politics, and some to internal alchemy. '

Deuterocanonical Apocrypha Index.
'The Apocrypha refer to texts which are left out of officially sanctioned versions ('canon') of the Bible. The term means 'things hidden away,' which implies secret or esoteric literature. However, none of these texts were ever considered secret.'
'In some Protestant Bibles, they are placed between the New and Old Testament. In the Roman Catholic Bibles the books are interspersed with the rest of the text. In this case they are also called 'Deuterocanonical', which means 'secondary canon.' The books on this page are all Deuterocanonical...'

The Nobel Prize and the Discovery of Vitamins.

The Tom Paine Project - Lewes, UK. Co-author of the French Constitution of 1792, godfather of American independence, born January 1737 in Thetford, England.

The Lenin Internet Archive. Works, biography.

Flags of the World. From the CIA World Factbook.

Nine Planets Without Intelligent Life. Fine web comics.

Science Fiction Cover Explorer.

The Nuremberg Trials and Their Legacy.