'This site puts the talents and knowledge of
philosophers at the service of the general public.
Send in a question that you think might be related
to philosophy and we will do our best to respond to
African American Photo Postcards.
'No other photographic format illustrates America
during the period between 1905 and 1925, better
than the photo postcard. The multitude of subjects
found in any other photographic format can also be
found on a photo postcard, with the photo postcard
selected as the format of choice of many small town
professional photographers and amateurs. Whether
illustrating state fairs, store openings, railroads
coming to town, sporting events, or just portraits
of ordinary people, the postcard photographer was
there to take the picture. '
'This exhibition deals with one of the many
subjects depicted in photo postcards; African
Omaha Indian Music.
'Omaha Indian Music features traditional Omaha
music from the 1890s and 1980s. The multiformat
ethnographic field collection contains 44 wax
cylinder recordings collected by Francis La
Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher between
1895 and 1897, 323 songs and speeches from the
1983 Omaha harvest celebration pow-wow, and 25
songs and speeches from the 1985 Hethu'shka
Society concert at the Library of Congress. '
The Antonio Gramsci Internet Archive.
Socialist thinker who had a tragic life.
Imprisoned by Mussolini.
his 'Prison Writings' are a twentieth century
classic. Gramsci was a key figure in the
early Italian Communist Party, and
was also responsible for the
concept of 'cultural hegemony'.
The Comte de Gabalis.
'The book describes an encounter with a mysterious
Comte de Gabalis, who is a master of the occult
sciences. Gabalis initiates de Villars into the
secrets of the elemental beings: the Sylphs of
the Air, the Undines of the Water, the Gnomes of
the Earth and the Salamanders of Fire. The Abbé
is not sure whether the elementals are demons,
while Gabalis encourages him to symbolically (?)
marry one of the elementals. '
The Ralamb Costume Book.
'The 'Ralamb Costume Book' is a small volume
containing 121 miniatures in Indian ink with
gouache and some gilding, displaying Turkish
officials, occupations and folk types. '
'They were acquired in Constantinople in 1657-58
by Claes Ralamb who led a Swedish embassy to the
Sublime Porte, and arrived in the Library in 1886...'
Alaska and Western Canada Collection.
'The Alaska and Western Canada collection is a
digital collection of historic photographs
documenting the geographic area of Alaska and
the Canadian provinces of Yukon Territory and
British Columbia. The collection features images
of the Seward Peninsula, the Aleutian Islands,
and areas of interest in Alaska and the Yukon
Territory relating to the Gold Rush of 1898-1900.
Included also are images of mining activities,
street scenes, Eskimo and Native Americans of
the region, hunting and fishing, transportation,
and World War II installations. '
Painted Houses of Borovsk.
'People of this small Russian town Borovsk are
fond of painting their houses with different
kind of stories. Some prefer pictures from
past, some are more modern oriented. '
Cape Cod Gravestones.
'A major goal is to photograph and display the
most interesting old gravestones in Barnstable
County before they are lost to the ravages of
time. A related goal is to provide reasonably
complete gravestone records from the earliest
in 1683 up to 1860 or later for all Barnstable
County cemeteries. Information about the gravestone
carvers and gravestone styles is included. Reference
sources for cemetery surveys done over the last one
hundred years are provided for further
Architecture and Interior Design for 20th
'The Gottscho-Schleisner Collection is comprised
of over 29,000 images primarily of architectural
subjects, including interiors and exteriors of
homes, stores, offices, factories, historic
buildings, and other structures. Subjects are
concentrated chiefly in the northeastern United
States, especially the New York City area, and
Florida. Included are the homes of notable
Americans, such as Raymond Loewy, and of several
U.S. presidents, as well as color images of the
1939-40 New York World's Fair. '
The Secret History of the Cedar Valley.
'Our purpose is to collect together as much information about bands,
venues, labels and zines of the Cedar Valley alternative / punk / underground
music scene in Iowa from 1977-2007. '
The Watts Towers.
'Nuestro Pueblo, commonly called the Watts
Towers, in the Watts district of Los Angeles,
California, is a collection of 17 interconnected
structures, two of which reach heights of over 99
feet (30 m). The Towers were built by Italian
immigrant construction worker Sabato ("Sam" or
"Simon") Rodia in his spare time over a period
of 33 years, from 1921 to 1954. The work is
a superb example of non-traditional vernacular
Japanese Art on the Subject of Medicine.
'This collection of Japanese Medical Prints or
Ukiyo-e is housed in the Clendening History of
Medicine Library, at the Kansas University Medical
Center. This group of prints is a small facet of
the total donation that was donated sometime
before May 1940, by Dr. Matthew Pickard.'
'Dr. Matthew Pickard was born in Odessa, Russia
in 1874. After serving in the Russian Navy,
achieving the rank of officer, he immigrated
to United States. Pickard started at Kansas
City Medical College in 1898 and practiced in
Kansas City as a surgeon until his death in 1952.
During the era of the Czarists, most educated
Russians were fluent in several languages. After
immigrating to the United States, Pickard added
Chinese and Japanese to his verbal arsenal. He
spent time travailing throughout Europe and the
Orient. On the Island of Hokkaido he studied the
Ainu, considered the aborigines of Japan...'
Lyceum and Lawn Tennis Club Collection.
'The Lyceum and Lawn Tennis Club was a women's
organization in Cuba dedicated to the promotion
of cultural understanding, women's issues, social
welfare, and women's athletics. It was formed when
two Havana women's clubs, the Lyceum and the
"Tennis de Señoritas," merged in 1939. The
Lyceum and Lawn Tennis Club hosted art exhibitions,
lectures, conferences, vocational classes, and a
library. It's strong emphasis on social welfare
led to the creation of the School of Social
Service at the University of Havana. The club
was also recognized as a nuturing environment
for emerging and established Cuban intellectuals
and artists. '
'In 1968, the Lyceum and Lawn Tennis Club
was shut down by the Castro government. Led by
María Luisa Guerrero, several members continued
meeting in exile in Miami. In the early 1980s,
the Cuban Heritage Collection canvassed former
Lyceum members to collect their memorabilia,
photographs, exhibition programs, newsletters,
and yearbooks. It is the over 300 items generously
donated by former members that comprise the Lyceum
and Lawn Tennis Club Collection. '
'It is generally assumed that chess originated
in India, 5-7 centuries after the birth of Christ.
At that time, the game was not as we know it.
During the course of history, many variants of
the game were tried. Some were discarded
immediately, some had for some time an
enthusiastic following and then died out,
while others stayed, and replaced the game
as it formerly was known...'
Tales of the North American Indians.
'Stith Thompson, a Distinguished Professor of
English and Folklore at Indiana University,
anthologized these Native American tales from
the ethnographic literature. His chief
contribution to the field was his
'Motif-Index of Folk Literature', which is
a cross-cultural index of themes that occur
Explanation here :-
(''The Codex Seraphinianus is a book written and illustrated by the
Italian architect and industrial designer Luigi Serafini during the late
1970s. The book is approximately 360 pages long (depending on edition),
and appears to be a visual encyclopedia of an unknown world, written in
one of its languages, an incomprehensible (at least for us) alphabetic
Foreign Relations of the United States.
'The Foreign Relations of the United States
series is the official documentary historical
record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions
that have been declassified and edited for
publication. The series is produced by the
State Department's Office of the Historian
and printed volumes are available from the
Government Printing Office.'
Beginning with the Lincoln administration.
A Brief History of British Holiday
'When Billy Butlin opened his first site at
Skegness in 1936 a number of other camps were
already in existence offering similar chalet
accommodation, meals and entertainment. He didn't
invent the holiday camp idea but simply took it
to a much higher level. The Skegness camp
offered more than anything ever attempted
before and the immense scope of entertainment and
attractions, along with the high-class interior
features of many of the public buildings, was
way larger and more impressive than anything
ever seen in Britain...'
The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923.
'In August 1923, William Dana Reynolds, with his wife
Vera Hunt Reynolds and their young daughter Helen
embarked from Honolulu on the Japanese steamship
Taiyo Maru, bound for Yokohama. While at sea,
the ship experienced and survived a tsunami
only to arrive, badly damaged, in Yokohama Bay
on September 8th as witness to the destruction
caused by the Great Kanto Earthquake. Fully
aware of the risks involved, eight of the male
passengers decided to leave the ship and enter
Fort Peck Dam.
A great dam, a great website too.
'Nothing less than volumes could even come close to
fully describing the magnitude of what occurred in
Fort Peck, Montana., between the years 1933 and
1940. Researching and writing such a work, assuming
that it lived up to the worthiness of the subject,
could easily consume the lifetime of the most gifted
author. The reason for that is simple-there is just
too much to tell. I am contend that no visitor of
average curiosity in the areas of history,
anthropology or human development can visit Fort
Peck without sensing the rich history and soaking
up the vivid color splashed in the memories of
workers, observers and residents, past and
The Showgirls Collection.
'The Showgirls collection documents the unique history of the Las Vegas
entertainment industry. Many artists and entrepreneurs were influential in the
birth of a Las Vegas icon: the showgirl. Showgirls features unique materials
relating to costume design and theatrical productions associated with the history of Las
Vegas entertainment. '
Chicago Anarchists on Trial:
Evidence from the Haymarket Affair 1886-87.
'This collection showcases more than 3,800 images
of original manuscripts, broadsides, photographs,
prints and artifacts relating to the Haymarket Affair.
The violent confrontation between Chicago police
and labor protesters in 1886 proved to be a pivotal
setback in the struggle for American workers' rights.
These materials pertain to: the May 4, 1886
meeting and bombing; to the trial, conviction
and subsequent appeals of those accused of
inciting the bombing; and to the execution of
four of the convicted and the later pardon of
the remaining defendants...'
Early Stuart Libels.
' "Early Stuart Libels"
is a web-based edition of early seventeenth-century
political poetry from manuscript sources. It brings
into the public domain over 350 poems, many of which
have never before been published. Though most of the
texts are poems of satire and invective, others take
the form of anti-libels, responding to libellers
with orthodox panegyric. '
An Album of Indian Gods.
'The Kalighat pictures "Indian gods" album was
created in 1875 in West Bengal and is on display
in 2 pages of thumbnail images in the Oxford
Digital Library. '
'The images here are from Erbario Alchemico, a
26 page illustrated manuscript that purports to
document many of the important plants associated
Bustamente Photograph Collection.
'The Manuel R. Bustamente Photograph Collection
consists primarily of over 600 black and white
photographs of Cuba from the early 1900s to the
1930s. Many of these images were published by New
York-based Munson Steamship Line in its Cuba
Review magazine. The Munson Steamship Line ran
a passenger and cargo service between New York
and Cuba. The photographs in the Bustamante
Photograph Collection depict various aspects
of the life, architecture, and culture of Havana
and other Cuban cities and towns at the turn of
the 20th century.'
Cooltan Squat, Coldharbour Lane,
'Widely regarded as one of the most successful
squats anywhere, Cooltan injected life into the
local community by offering art galleries, cafe,
theatre space, rehearsal rooms, offices for protest
groups - and the best raves in town!'
'Modest Needs is a registered charity that works to
stop the cycle of
poverty before it starts for low-income workers
struggling to afford
emergency expenses like those we've all encountered
unexpected auto repair, the unanticipated trip to
the doctor, the
unusually large winter heating bill.'
Interesting US charity and a sad state
of affairs that it's
charity that's needed to
prevent working people getting deeper into
poverty for such things.
The Life of Riley.
'Good Morning everyone. My name is Olive Riley. I live in Australia
near Sydney. I was born in Broken Hill on Oct. 20th 1899...'
Australian Aboriginal Rock Art.
'These paintings depict totemic inhabitants of the
Australian landscape in the 'dreamtime'. They
constitute part of a text, the meaning of which
is esoteric knowledge only known to Aboriginal
elders. Beyond that we can't answer any questions
as to their meaning or significance.'
Some nice photos of Japanese street fashion,
as well as a history of kimono.
Walks In and Around London.
'Since 2003, members of the urban75 bulletin boards
have been taking part in monthly leisurely walks in
and around London...'
Photographs of London views.
'Chichester cathedral's roots lie way back
in 681, when Saint Wilfred came charging into
Sussex to spread the word about Christianity,
establishing a Cathedral in the small community
of Selsey, south of Chichester...'
Flickers of Light.
Stories of the Righteous among the Nations.
'And yet, even within the horror that was Auschwitz,
there were flickers of light. Despite the total
dehumanization that was part of the camp system,
there were remarkable acts of solidarity and humanity
by camp inmates. Among them were non-Jews, who
at risk to their own lives, sought to ease the
pain, to give aid and to rescue Jews. They proved
that even within the brutality and the murder, people
could choose not to remain indifferent. These non-Jews
are among the more than 21,000 who by 2006 have
been recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among
the Nations. Since 1963, as mandated by the Israeli
Parliament, Yad Vashem has honored those non-Jews who,
during the Holocaust, saved Jewish lives in
circumstances that posed a risk to his or her
life, without intending to receive a reward,
monetary or otherwise. '
Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the
Federal Writers' Project 1936-38.
The last American survivors of slavery tell their
'Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal
Writers' Project, 1936-1938 contains more than
2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500
black-and-white photographs of former slaves.
These narratives were collected in the 1930s as
part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works
Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and
microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave
Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United
States from Interviews with Former Slaves. '
Fariba Amini, Conversations with my Father:
20th century history recalled by an interesting
person - a former judge and mayor of Tehran,
who was wed by Khomeini and imprisoned
by the Shah.
'My father was born in June 1915 in the town of
Arak, in west-central Iran, into a middle class
family. He was named Nosratollah (God's Victory).
The story goes that when he was a baby, the Russian
army invaded Iran -- this was the time of World War
I -- and a band of Russian soldiers had come to their
house. Anticipating their arrival, everyone, including
his parents, had left out of fear, and in the chaos
little Nosratollah was left on top of the korsi,
the traditional charcoal stove that was used to
heat Iranian homes, with all the household money
and jewelry stashed underneath. When the soldiers
saw the little baby, they left, without touching
or taking anything...'
The Wurst Gallery.
Artists' pictures of dogs.
'artists were invited to reserve a dog breed on a
first come, first served basis. the only requirement
was that the artist attempt to capture the look and
spirit of their chosen breed in their own unique
'This is a set of photos of places in Oxford
associated with the life of J.R.R. Tolkien.'
Clean, Green Machine:
Fairmount Water Works 1800-1860.
'Once the icon of Philadelphia's technological
prowess, aesthetic sensibility, and civic goodwill,
the Fairmount Water Works has sunk below the
surface of popular and academic memory. The
acclaim this water supply system evoked in the
first half of the nineteenth-century may now
seem curious to those who view this string of
neoclassical buildings hugging the shore of the
Schuylkill river. However, the Water Works provide
an important key to understanding Philadelphia in
the first half of the nineteenth-century...'
German Industrial Buildings 1910-25.
'These photos are from a small book called
'Bauten der Arbeit und des Verkehrs' (buildings
of work and transport) 1925, one of 'Die Blauen
Bücher' (the blue books), a series of thin
paperback books on art and architecture.'
Mercury's Transit: An Unusual Spot on the Sun.
(Nov 14 2006)
'What's that dot on the Sun? If you look
closely, it is almost perfectly round. The dot
is the result of an unusual type of solar eclipse
that occurred last week. Usually it is the Earth's
Moon that eclipses the Sun. Last week, for the
first time in over three years, the planet
Mercury took a turn. '
Words of a Man's Mouth.
' "The words of a man's mouth are as deep waters,
and the wellspring of wisdom as a flowing brook." '
'This quote is the opening for the small book
described below. In December of 2005 this autograph
book was found at a used knicknack store in Hong
Kong's central district and purchased for 380
Hong Kong dollars. The identity of the book's
original owner is a mystery. The stories the book
reveals are hidden in plain sight. Aside from a
few quotations in English, the bulk of the
entries are in Chinese. Tiny pictures of men
dot the pages of the book...'
The William Morris Internet Archive.
19th century artist (a founder of the British Arts and
Crafts movement), wallpaper designer, poet,
translator of Icelandic sagas into English,
and political activist. Morris had a pretty
The Gutenberg Bible at the Ransom
'The Gutenberg Bible, the first substantial
book printed with movable type, is one of the
greatest treasures in the Ransom Center's
collections. It was printed at Johann Gutenberg's
shop in Mainz, Germany and completed in 1454 or
1455. The Center's Bible was acquired in 1978
and is one of only five complete examples in the
The Apotheosis of George Washington.
'Americans are everywhere given the message that
they can look up to George Washington, but for
those who walk through the Rotunda of the Capitol,
the figurative becomes literal. Gazing upward to
the dome, one sees Washington floating far overhead,
a life-sized and heavenly vision. Constantino
Brumidi's "The Apotheosis of George Washington"
looms above. The old General and first President
sits in majesty, flanked on the right by the
Goddess of Liberty and on his left by a winged
figure of Fame sounding a trumpet and holding a
palm frond aloft in a symbol of victory. Thirteen
female figures stand in a semi-circle around
Washington, representing the thirteen original
Site devoted to propaganda analysis - some
'It may seem strange to suggest that the study
of propaganda has relevance to contemporary politics.
After all, when most people think about propaganda,
they think of the enormous campaigns that were waged
by Hitler and Stalin in the 1930s. Since nothing
comparable is being disseminated in our society
today, many believe that propaganda is no longer
'But propaganda can be as blatant as a swastika
or as subtle as a joke. Its persuasive techniques
are regularly applied by politicians, advertisers,
journalists, radio personalities, and others who
are interested in influencing human behavior.
Propagandistic messages can be used to accomplish
positive social ends, as in campaigns to reduce
drunk driving, but they are also used to win
elections and to sell malt liquor.'
Frontline Diplomacy: The Foreign
Affairs Oral History
Interviews with American diplomats.
'The interviews in the collection are mostly with
Foreign Service Officers but there also are some
with political appointees and other officials.
While some 1920s-, 1930s-, and World-War-II-era
diplomacy is covered, most of the interviews involve
post-World-War-II diplomacy, from the late 1940s to
the 1990s. This collection captures the
post-World-War-II period in vivid terms and
intimate detail, documenting the way that U.S.
diplomacy defends the United States and its
interests in a challenging world. The narratives
span the major diplomatic crises and issues
that faced the United States during the second
half of the 20th century and, as new interviews
are added, will include developments in the 21st
The Match Workers' Strike.
'On an early July afternoon in 1888 a crowd of 200,
mainly teenaged girls, arrived outside a newspaper
office in Bouverie Street, off Fleet Street in the
City of London. They had left their work at the
Bryant and May match factory at Bow in the East
End in protest when three of their colleagues had
been fired. Management had accused them of telling
lies about their working conditions to a radical
journalist, Annie Besant. They had come to her for
help. In June Besant had heard at a meeting of
socialists in Hampstead that Bryant and May, had
announced monster profits with dividends of 22 per
cent contrasted with paying wages of between 4 and
8 Shillings [20 - 40p] a week ...'